Bird Families

African Lark - Certhilauda, ​​genus

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1 lark, Karroo

2 lark, long-billed

3 lark, spike-heeled

4 5992

5 5993

6 5994

7 5995

See also other dictionaries:

Certhilauda - Eastern Long billed Lark (Certhilauda semitorquata), South Africa Scientific classification Kin… Wikipedia

Certhilauda - Certhilauda… Wikipedia Español

Certhilauda - ilgasnapiai vieversiai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda rus. African lark, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas - vieversiniai siauresnis terminas - agulajinis ilgasnapis vieversys siauresnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda brevirostris - agulajinis ilgasnapis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda brevirostris angl. Agulhas long billed lark vok. Agulhas Langschnabellerche, f pranc. alouette de l Agulhas, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda chuana - trumpanagis ilgasnapis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda chuana, Mira chuana angl. short clawed lark vok. Akazien Langschnabellerche, f rus. short-clawed shrub lark, m pranc. alouette à… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda benguelensis - benguelinis ilgasnapis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda benguelensis angl. Benguela long billed lark vok. Benguela Langschnabellerche, f pranc. alouette de Benguela, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda albofasciata - paprastasis ilgapirštis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda albofasciata, Chersomanes albofasciata angl. spike heeled lark vok. Zirplerche, f rus. high-legged African lark, m pranc. alouette…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda curvirostris - lenktasnapis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda curvirostris angl. cape long billed lark vok. Kap Langschnabellerche, f rus. crooked-billed African lark, m pranc. alouette à long bec, f ryšiai:…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda semitorquata - rytinis ilgasnapis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda semitorquata angl. eastern long billed lark vok. Transkei Langschnabellerche, f pranc. alouette du Transvaal, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Certhilauda subcoronata - karuvinis ilgasnapis vieversys statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Certhilauda subcoronata angl. Karoo long billed lark vok. Karoo Langschnabellerche, f pranc. alouette du Namaland, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas - ilgasnapiai ... ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Endemic birds of southern Africa - The following is a list of bird species endemic or near endemic to South Africa. * Gray winged Francolin, Scleroptila africanus * Orange River Francolin, Scleroptila levaillantoides * Hartlaub s Francolin, Pternistes hartlaubi * Red billed ... ... Wikipedia

Materials (edit)

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Number of species in "sister" taxa

genusAfrican larkCerthilaudaSwainson
familyLarksAlaudidae
superfamilyPasserinesPasseroidea
infraorderPasserinesPasserida
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fantail Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
classBirdsAves
superclassFour-leggedTetrapodaBroili1913
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
suprasectionEumetazoiEumetazoa
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
kingdomAnimalsAnimalia
super-kingdomNuclearEukaryotaChatton1925
empireCellular

Rainforest passerines skip the breeding season if it falls in a dry year

Thomas E. Martin and James C. Mouton of the University of Montana analyzed the reproduction and survival data of 38 rainforest passerine bird species in normal and dry years. The material was collected in Venezuela (from 2002 to 2008, the dry year was 2008) and Malaysia (from 2009 to 2018, the dry year was 2016).

Observations have shown that drought significantly reduces the level of bird reproduction in tropical forests on both continents. In the 18 studied species from Venezuela, it decreased on average by 51.9 percent, and in 20 species from Malaysia - by 36.3 percent. For example, in a normal year, Martin and Mouton found 65 used nests of gray-breasted forest wrens (Henicorhina leucophrys) in the model area in Venezuela, and only seven in a year with a lack of rainfall. At the same time, the number of adult individuals of different bird species in the studied territories in different years remained approximately the same, which indicates the refusal of some individuals from reproduction during a drought.

Male birds have to choose between attractive coloration and beauty of the song.

Sexual selection, which is based on the struggle for reproductive success, can potentially act as a powerful factor in speciation. This role is supported by mathematical models and individual works, but many attempts at a broader analysis did not reveal the expected relationship. A team of British bird watchers asked the question: Is it always correct in such studies to assess the power of sexual selection? It is generally assumed that sexual selection will affect all traits associated with mate competition and fertility. Often, sexual dimorphism in color is used as an indicator of sexual selection - differences in the color of males and females. However, the visual channel is not the only one that can be used to attract a partner. So, in many birds, acoustic signals serve this purpose. Using the order of Passeriformes (Passeriformes) as an example, the authors of the new study demonstrated that there is a compromise between the development of the two systems for attracting a partner: the dignity of males is mainly manifested either in vocalization or in appearance. This means that it is simply impossible to assess the role of sexual selection based on only one group of traits.

Songbirds have an extra chromosome

In songbirds (suborder Passeri), most cells in the body contain 40 pairs of chromosomes. In 1998, an additional chromosome in the germ cells was found in zebra finches, and in 2014 in their relatives, Japanese finches. Then this find was considered as a genetic curiosity. It was present in the germ cells of females, as well as in the precursors of the germ cells of males, but it was also "thrown out" from them during the maturation of sperm.

A group led by Pavel Borodin from the Novosibirsk Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences studied 14 species of songbirds from nine different families, as well as eight species of birds that do not belong to songbirds - geese, ducks, chickens, pigeons, gulls, swifts, falcons, parrots. In all singing species, an additional chromosome was found in the germ cells, while in other species it was not.

“We found that, unlike other birds and most other animals, all the species of songbirds studied contain a different number of chromosomes in somatic and germ cells. All of them, literally every bird studied, have an extra chromosome in the reproductive cells (COD). We have shown that the most common birds have an extra chromosome: siskins, swallows, tits, flycatchers, larks and rooks (the rook also belongs to songbirds). At the same time, the additional chromosome is absent in birds of all other orders, ”said Borodin N + 1.

He and his colleagues isolated and deciphered separate sections of additional chromosomes in the siskin, pale swallow, zebra finch and Japanese finch and found there numerous fragments of functional genes of the main genome. Simultaneously with Borodin's group, two independent groups of researchers discovered (1, 2) that the chromosomes in the germ cells of the zebra finch contain genes that are similar, but not identical to the genes of somatic cells. Some of these genes are present in multiple copies and produce RNA and proteins in the testes and ovaries of sexually mature birds.

“We hypothesize that COD emerged as an additional parasitic microchromosome in the common ancestor of all songbirds about 35 million years ago and underwent significant changes in size and genetic content, evolving from a 'genomic parasite' into an important component of the germ cell genome. We do not yet know why it is needed and what advantages it can give to its carriers. Perhaps it was she who allowed songbirds to become the most numerous suborder (more than 5 thousand out of a total of 9-10 thousand bird species), create many forms, beautiful and amazing, and capture many ecological niches on all continents, ”the scientist noted.

Scientists believe songbird COD can be seen as an evolutionary attempt to locally and temporarily increase the copy number of the desired genes without increasing the overall genome size and body weight. Birds need extra copies of genes in the germ cells during a short breeding period, just to produce a lot of sperm and load the oocytes with a lot of proteins. And copies of these genes are not needed all year round and in all somatic cells.

“If we take into account that the COD of swallows, tits, warblers and many other small birds weighs about 0.1 picograms, and the entire genome is 1.2 picograms, it turns out to be a rather heavy burden to carry, and not just to carry, but also feed, water and multiply throughout life in all cells of the body. It is more convenient to store a set of genes for reproduction in a small tool box, ”Borodin noted.

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of the intraspecific one. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise at all by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

Contents

  • 1 Identification
  • 2 Distribution
  • 3 Taxonomy
    • 3.1 Subspecies
  • 4 Habitat
  • 5 Behavior
    • 5.1 Diet
    • 5.2 Vocalisation
  • 6 References
  • 7 Recommended Citation
  • 8 External Links

Identification

Length 16-20 cm, mass 30-48 g
Upper parts reddish brown with dark brown streaks. Fairly broad, creamy eyebrow, cheeks and ear-coverts whitish and speckled. Tail and flight feahers dark brown with paler margins. Throat whitish, breast creamy buff, lightly streaked rufous brown, belly creamy buff. Bill fairly short and slightly decurved. Eyes brown to pale gray.

Taxonomy

The Long-billed Lark complex was split recently based on genetic and morphological differences (Ryan & Bloomer, 1999. Auk 116, 194-208). The Eastern Long-billed Lark is closely related to the Cape Long-billed Lark and Agulhas Long-billed Lark.

Subspecies

  • C. s. semitorquata:
  • Northern Eastern Cape, south-eastern Free State, Lesotho, and western KwaZulu-Natal
  • C. s. transvaalensis: upper parts paler and redder than nominate, wing and tail shorter
  • Northeastern Northern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, western Swaziland and northern KwaZulu-Natal
  • C. s. algida: most heavily streaked race, upper parts darker and under parts paler than nominate race
  • Eastern Cape

Behavior

Usually solitary or in pairs.

Forages mainly on the ground for arthropods, seeds and corms.

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