Bird Families

Family Striped Anttraps - Thamnophilidae


Latin name:Serinus pusillus

Appearance and behavior... It is close to the size of a siskin. It is distinguished by a bright color combining black, yellow and red tones, a relatively long, sharply notched tail and a short swollen beak (the upper and lower beak are almost equally developed). Not fussy and at the same time very mobile. Dexterously climbs the branches, can be suspended at the ends of branches or dry inflorescences of herbs and, taking out the seeds, hang upside down. It moves along the ground in small jumps or, less often, stepping over. Often sits on rock ledges or tree tops. The flight is swift, undulating. Body length 11.5-14 cm, wingspan 21.5-23 cm, weight 9.5-12.7 g.

Description... The adult male is very bright: the head, throat and forechest are black, on the forehead there is an orange-red spot with a satin sheen. The nape is grayish, with black longitudinal spots turning into longitudinal streaks on the back. The background color of the back varies from grayish-yellow to olive-orange, with longitudinal black streaks. A reddish-yellow or orange spot stands out against the motley background of the back and upper tail in the lumbar region. The upper wing coverts are yellowish-rufous or orange with blackish centers. Flight and tail feathers are dark-brown with yellowish-red edges.

Secondary flight feathers with a light brownish border. Wing coverts with light tops forming two noticeable stripes on the folded wing. The color of the anterior stripe varies from bright yellow to orange. The posterior, wider stripe is yellowish-white or reddish. The color of the chest and the front of the abdomen is from lemon-yellow to yellowish-orange, on the sides of the body there are black longitudinal streaks, the back of the abdomen is white. Undertail with lemon yellow or reddish tinge. The intensity of yellow and orange coloration varies individually and also depends on age.

The adult female is similar to the male, but not as bright. The back of the head and goiter are gray-brown, with a black blurred pattern. The spot on the forehead is smaller (its back part does not go beyond the level of the eyes), pale red or orange. The reddish color is yellower and duller. Old birds look blacker in shabby plumage. The beak and legs are black. In juvenile birds in juvenile plumage, the upper side of the body is pale, buffy-brownish, with blurred longitudinal spots, the top and sides of the head are darker, without a bright spot on the forehead. The throat and craw are monotonous brownish, the chest and sides are of the same tonality, with an ocher bloom and blurred longitudinal streaks. The abdomen is white. The bill is grayish-brown, the base of the mandible is light.

Young birds in the first winter plumage are more similar to adults, but the head remains brownish-brown, without a red spot on the forehead. Separate bright feathers on the forehead begin to appear only from December, and only by April the spot becomes solid, like in adult birds. Due to the motley reddish-black general coloration and the presence of an orange-red spot on the forehead, it is almost unmistakably recognized.

Vote... The call sounds like a high trill. The singing is melodic and consists of the same high, clean trills and chirps. Females also sing, but quieter and more monotonous than males.

Distribution, status... Inhabits the mountains of Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran, the outskirts of Tibet, southern Kazakhstan and Central Asia. In the Caucasus, it is quite common, in winter it only slightly displaces to the lower belts of the mountains, foothills and to the adjacent plains.

Lifestyle... They nest in the mountains at the upper border of the forest. Breeding begins in late May or early June. During this period, males walk near the female with a raised tail and lowered wings, fluffing feathers on the throat and goiter, while singing continuously. The nest is arranged on coniferous trees, in cracks in rocks or in a bush, it has a cupped shape, twisted from dry stems and roots, lined with wool and hair inside. Eggs 3–5, pale bluish, with reddish-brown specks, concentrated at the blunt end, or without them. The chick is covered with pale gray down.

They feed on the seeds of various grasses, alder, birch and other plants, husking the soft core. In summer, including for feeding chicks, they catch insects. During the non-nesting time they keep in flocks, sometimes from hundreds of individuals or, less often, in groups of up to ten birds. Quite often in winter they form common flocks with tap dancers and siskins. Sometimes there are groups of only young birds.

Korolkovy, or red-capped, reel (Serinus pusillus)

Family of striped anttraps

The Thamnophilidae family of Anttrap striped includes 200 species that vary in size, resembling ravens, vireons and shrikes. Classification:

* Genus Terenura
o Terenura maculata
o Terenura sicki
o Terenura callinota
o Terenura humeralis
o Terenura sharpei
o Terenura spodioptila

* Genus Myrmornis
o Myrmornis torquata

* Genus Pygiptila
o Pygiptila stellaris

* Genus Megastictus
o Megastictus margaritatus

* Genus Thamnomanes
o Thamnomanes saturninus
o Thamnomanes ardesiacus
o Thamnomanes caesius
o Thamnomanes schistogynus

* Genus Xenornis
o Xenornis setifrons

* Genus Mackenziaena
o Mackenziaena severa
o Mackenziaena leachii

* Genus Cymbilaimus (2 species)

* Genus Frederickena (2 species)

* Genus Dysithamnus (8 species)

* Genus Herpsilochmus (15 species)

* Genus Sakesphorus
o Sakesphorus bernardi
o Sakesphorus canadensis
o Sakesphorus cristatus
o Sakesphorus melanonotus
o Sakesphorus melanothorax
o Sakesphorus luctuosus

* Genus Thamnophilus
o Thamnophilus doliatus
o Thamnophilus zarumae
o Thamnophilus multistriatus
o Thamnophilus palliatus
o Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus
o Thamnophilus bridgesi
o Thamnophilus nigriceps
o Thamnophilus praecox
o Thamnophilus nigrocinereus
o Thamnophilus cryptoleucus
o Thamnophilus aethiops
o Thamnophilus unicolor
o Thamnophilus aroyae
o Thamnophilus schistaceus
o Thamnophilus murinus
o Thamnophilus atrinucha
o Thamnophilus punctatus
+ Thamnophilus (p.) Punctatus
+ Thamnophilus (punctatus) leucogaster
o Thamnophilus stictocephalus
o Thamnophilus sticturus
o Thamnophilus pelzelni
o Thamnophilus ambiguus
o Thamnophilus divisorus
o Thamnophilus insignis
o Thamnophilus amazonicus
o Thamnophilus caerulescens
o Thamnophilus torquatus
o Thamnophilus ruficapillus

* Genus Neoctantes
o Neoctantes niger

* Genus Clytoctantes (2 species)

* Genus Myrmorchilus
o Myrmorchilus strigilatus

* Genus Myrmochanes
o Myrmochanes hemileucus

* Genus Epinecrophylla
o Epinecrophylla gutturalis
o Epinecrophylla fulviventris
o Epinecrophylla leucophthalma
o Epinecrophylla spodionota
o Epinecrophylla haematonota
o Epinecrophylla fjeldsaai
o Epinecrophylla ornata
o Epinecrophylla erythrura

* Genus Myrmotherula
o Myrmotherula brachyura
o Myrmotherula ignota
+ Myrmotherula (ignota) obscura
o Myrmotherula surinamensis
o Myrmotherula multostriata
o Myrmotherula pacifica
o Myrmotherula cherriei
o Myrmotherula klagesi
o Myrmotherula longicauda
o Myrmotherula sclateri
o Myrmotherula ambigua
o Myrmotherula axillaris
o Myrmotherula schisticolor
o Myrmotherula sunensis
o Myrmotherula minor
o Myrmotherula iheringi
o Myrmotherula fluminensis
o Myrmotherula behni
o Myrmotherula grisea
o Myrmotherula unicolor
o Myrmotherula snowi
o Myrmotherula longipennis
o Myrmotherula urosticta
o Myrmotherula menetriesii
o Myrmotherula guttata
o Myrmotherula hauxwelli
o Myrmotherula assimilis
o Myrmotherula gularis

* Genus Formicivora (8 species)

* Genus Stymphalornis
o Stymphalornis acutirostris

* Genus Pithys
o Pithys albifrons
o Pithys castanea

* Genus Skutchia
o Skutchia borbae

* Genus Phlegopsis
o Phlegopsis nigromaculata
o Phlegopsis erythroptera

* Genus Phaenostictus
o Phaenostictus mcleannani

* Genus Gymnopithys (4 species)

* Genus Rhegmatorhina
o Rhegmatorhina melanosticta
o Rhegmatorhina cristata
o Rhegmatorhina hoffmannsi
o Rhegmatorhina berlepschi
o Rhegmatorhina gymnops

* Genus Cercomacra (12 species)

* Genus Hypocnemis - (2-7 species)

* Genus Drymophila (8 species)

* Genus Percnostola
o Percnostola rufifrons
o Percnostola lophotes

* Genus Schistocichla
o Schistocichla schistacea
o Schistocichla leucostigma
+ Schistocichla (leucostigma) humaythae
+ Schistocichla (leucostigma) brunneiceps
+ Schistocichla (leucostigma) rufifascies
+ Schistocichla (leucostigma) saturata
o Schistocichla caurensis

* Genus Myrmoborus
o Myrmoborus leucophrys
o Myrmoborus lugubris
o Myrmoborus myotherinus
o Myrmoborus melanurus

* Genus Rhopornis
o Rhopornis ardesiaca

* Genus Pyriglena
o Pyriglena leuconota
o Pyriglena leucoptera
o Pyriglena atra

* Genus Hypocnemoides (2 species)

* Genus Hylophylax (4 species)

* Genus Myrmeciza
o Myrmeciza hemimelaena
o Myrmeciza castanea
o Myrmeciza hyperythra
o Myrmeciza goeldii
o Myrmeciza melanoceps
o Myrmeciza fortis
o Myrmeciza immaculata
o Myrmeciza ferruginea
o Myrmeciza ruficauda
o Myrmeciza loricata
o Myrmeciza squamosa
o Myrmeciza griseiceps
o Myrmeciza laemosticta
o Myrmeciza nigricauda
o Myrmeciza berlepschi
o Myrmeciza disjuncta
o Myrmeciza longipes
o Myrmeciza exsul
o Myrmeciza pelzelni
o Myrmeciza atrothorax

Outward signs of a red-headed manakin

The red-headed manakin is a small songbird measuring 10 cm and weighing about 12.5-18.5 grams.

The wings and tail are very short. The legs are thin, weak, yellow, the outer toe is at a considerable distance from the middle. The body of the males is colored black, the head from the forehead and the zygomatic region are red, the thighs are creamy yellow. Females are more modestly colored: their back is brown or olive, and the abdomen is yellowish or brownish.

Red-headed manakin spread

The red-headed manakin is found in Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Mexico, and Colombia.

Red-capped pipra (Pipra mentalis).

Habitats of the red-headed manakin

The red-headed manakin lives in the humid jungle. Inhabits moist forests and mature secondary forests below 500 meters above sea level, in Mexico up to 750 meters.

Features of the behavior of the red-headed manakin

Red-headed manakins are sedentary birds. Only sometimes they come down from the trees a little lower. The presence of a bird can be easily detected by a prolonged whistle "psi-i-i", which is emitted by a male guarding his territory, declaring that the crown of this tree is occupied. Sometimes birds give themselves away with the characteristic buzzing sounds emitted by their wings during flight: as if someone nearby sat down to spin yarn, spinning an old spindle. The way of life, red-haired pipras resemble our titmouses.

Birds also live in small flocks and flutter from branch to branch in dense thickets, picking juicy berries.

Red-headed manakin's food

Red-headed manakins feed on small berries and fruits, only from time to time they eat the seeds of various plants. Sometimes insects are captured with food. The process of digestion of food lasts for the red-headed pipra only 18 minutes, so the birds constantly sit on branches strewn with fruits.

Reproduction of the red-headed manakin

The breeding season for red-headed manakin occurs in March-June in Costa Rica, February-July in Panama. The bright coloration of the male feather coat is demonstrated as a challenge to competitors in the struggle for the nesting site and attracts individuals of the opposite sex. During the mating season, males show complex movements in flight. To attract the attention of a feathered girlfriend, the male performs such a ritual: they quickly flicker in the crown of a tree, making up to 80 flaps of their wings per second, resembling a nimble hummingbird.

The coloration of females is fundamentally different from that of males.

Hear the voice of the red-headed manakin

The similarity lies in the fact that the bird moves in such small and fast movements back and forth that it seems as if the manakin moves without the help of his legs. The construction of nests in all representatives of the Manakin family is exclusively females.

Caring birds locate the nest not high from the ground in dense thickets. The building material is usually moss, and the lining is plant fluff.

Attracting a female, the red-capped piper makes very sharp sounds and flaps its wings up to 80 per second.

The nest is in the shape of a bowl. The female lays two pale eggs covered with nondescript small specks. Incubation lasts 17-20 days. Chicks stay in the nest for about two weeks, then leave it to start an independent life. Interestingly, red-headed manakins have very developed family relationships, they feed together, forming flocks.

Red-headed manakin subspecies

The red-headed manakin forms three subspecies. One lives in Mexico, the Veracruz region, the second Pipra mentalis ignifera is found in Panama, the third in Colombia and Ecuador. There are intermediate hybrids.

With small and quick movements back and forth, the manakin creates the impression that he moves without the participation of the legs.

Conservation status of the red-headed manakin

The red-headed manakin is not a feared species. But in places where the area of ​​lowland forests is decreasing, the number of red-headed pipras naturally decreases.

This species has a rather large area of ​​distribution, so the number of birds does not approach the threshold value for vulnerable species. However, in nature, there is a tendency towards a decrease in the number, although this process is not proceeding at a rapid pace, and has not yet reached its maximum value. Therefore, the state of red-headed manakins in the environment is assessed as with the least threat to the species.

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