The eastern white-eyed belongs to the white-eyed family, the passerine order. The emergence of the English and scientific name for the bird is associated with the presence of a noticeable silky silvery-white ring around the eyes. Zosterops translated from Greek means "eye with a belt".
It is a family of small birds, consisting of 85 species, which are distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics of the Eastern Hemisphere.
Eastern white-eyed (Zosterops palpebrosus).
External signs of an oriental white-eyed
The eastern white-eyed is a small bird about 8-9 cm long with a yellowish-olive upper body, white rings around the eyes, and a yellow throat. The belly is whitish-gray, but may have a yellow tint in some subspecies.
The tail of the bird is greenish, the head is yellow. The wings are rounded, the legs are strong. Outwardly, males and females practically do not differ from each other.
This species includes common subspecies, which are recognized by the color and the degree of presence of shades of yellow in their plumage.
Habitats of the eastern white-eyed
The eastern white-eyed moth lives in mountain forests, inhabits mangroves and gardens. Prefers open landscapes. It is found in a wide range of habitats from shrubs to moist forests, even settling on islands. They are extremely rare in dry desert areas.
The eastern white-eyed is a 12 cm long bird.
Distribution of the eastern white-eyed
The Eastern White-Eye is found over a vast area in Southwest Asia. This bird species is distributed in Afghanistan eastward to China, India, Indonesia. Lives in Australia. In Russia, the white-eyed brown-sided, a close relative of tropical birds, is found.
She lives in the rich in food floodplain forests of the Amur and in the Primorsky Territory. Winters in Indonesia.
Features of the behavior of the eastern white-eyed
Eastern white-eyed can be detected by a sonorous whistle, reminiscent of the cry of a siskin. The birds themselves are completely invisible in dense foliage, and one must look very carefully to see small reddish birds with green backs and sides in the crown of trees.
Along with insects, the eastern white-eye feeds on nectar and various fruits.
Outside the nesting period, eastern white-eyed moths gather in flocks with a number of birds of more than several hundred individuals. Birds usually hide inside the crowns of trees, they collect ants and other insects, and also eat their eggs and larvae. Their silhouettes, with their characteristic yellow-green-white plumage, flicker between the branches.
During feeding, the members of the flock constantly call each other, often yelling all together, making a loud noise. Sometimes oriental white-eyed women begin to sing, repeating the same song many times.
Listen to the voice of the eastern white-eyed
Although eastern white-eyed animals do not make long flights, with a favorable wind they are able to reach new territories, including coastal islands.
These birds are quite often included in mixed flocks of small birds of different species and feed in parks, gardens, fields.
Wild populations of this species were captured by reproducing voice signals and using live baits. Eastern white-eyed birds do not stand on ceremony with birds that have settled nearby, and sometimes steal building material from the nests of other birds. There are known cases of interspecific feeding of paradise flycatcher chicks by white-eyed
Reproduction of the eastern white-eyed
The breeding season for eastern white-eyed moths lasts from February to September, but peaks in April.
The male announces the occupied territory with his singing. Both birds build a nest in the form of a compact deep bowl suspended like in a hammock at a fork in a tree, in bushes or on bamboo stalks. It takes 4 days to set it up. Moss, spider webs, lichens and plant fibers are used as building materials.
Wild populations of this species were found even in California in the 1980s.
The female lays two to four pale blue eggs for several days, one after the other. The eggs hatch for about two weeks. Both birds feed offspring, which fledge after 10 days. Chicks are fed with insects. After two weeks, the chicks leave the nest and the parents re-lay their eggs in the same nest.
Nutrition of the eastern white-eyed
Eastern white-eyed birds are mainly insectivorous birds. Along with insects, they feed on nectar and various fruits and seeds.
Keeping eastern white-eyed in captivity
The Eastern White-Eye is a very popular captive breeding bird. Fans of this type of nectar beetle of Asian origin are happy to keep birds in cages.
White-eyed women adhere to a certain diet. They are fed with sweet juice, pieces of fruit, small invertebrates and special food for nectar beetles.
Eastern white-eyed women love to swim in water, so birds are given liquid food in a sealed container, otherwise the birds can swim in sweet juice. They breed well in captivity.
During the breeding season, the male sings soft cheerful trills, and the female collects building material for building a nest: cobwebs, pieces of plant debris. There are 2-4 eggs in a clutch. The incubation period is 12 days. The chicks remain in the nest for the same amount of time. During the breeding season, eastern white-eyed moths are intensively fed with small live food rich in protein.
The Eastern White-Eye is a very popular captive breeding bird.
The value of eastern white-eyed in ecosystems
Eastern white-eyed white-eyed flowers that visit in search of insects that live on plants, such as thrips, and possibly nectar, which they feed on. At the same time, the head of the eastern white-eyed is often stained with pollen, which leads to errors in identifying the species. Eastern white-eyed moths sometimes bathe in the dew that has gathered on the leaves.
During the nesting period, palm squirrels attack the eastern white-eyed but, despite their small size, the birds defend themselves together. In food chains, white-eyed white-eyed animals serve as food for a variety of predators, including bats and birds of the Kingfisher species. Endoparasites Haemosporidia of the genus Dorisa and Haemoproteus and Dorisa have been found in birds, although they rarely cause death.
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The Timaliidae family is a large group of songbirds close to thrush and common in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Asia.
Outwardly, they resemble blackbirds, but by family ties they are close to thick-billed tits. The family includes up to 280 species of birds, grouped in 52-57 genera. They inhabit forest and shrub biotopes of tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Australia, Oceania and Africa. The center of origin of the family is considered to be South Asia, where 139 species live, that is, half of the entire family.
On the territory of the CIS, the only species nests - the striped thymelia (Gatrulax lineatus), which lives in the south of Central Asia. The genus to which our thymelia belongs is central, that is, the largest, since there are up to 32 species in it.
Thymelia, or as they are also called, shrubs, have a collapsed or stepped tail, short wings, a straight beak with a slight bend along the ridge. Strong legs have tenacious toes that allow birds to quickly climb in dense thickets of bushes or forests. The plumage of birds is rather dense and loose. The color is dominated by brown colors, occasionally it is bright and multicolored. Khokhols and other feather ornaments and areas of bare skin are also common.
Thymelia - sedentary birds nest in dense thickets of bushes. Nests are arranged low above the ground or on its surface. These are bowl-shaped sloppy constructions that the thymelia build from plant material - stems, leaves, thin roots, pieces of moss, etc. They are somewhat reminiscent of warbler nests, but less durable. In clutch there are 2-4, less often 5-6 eggs of white, blue or variegated color. Both parents incubate eggs and feed chicks. Like thick-billed tits, thymelia are very contact birds. Mating partners constantly correct and clean each other's plumage with their beaks. In flocks, in which thymelia gather after the nesting period, the birds are also very friendly. Periodically, when feeding the chicks, the nesting pair is helped by other thymelia, the so-called "helpers". In this they are similar to mockingbirds and some other passerines.
Thymelia feed in crowns, but more often on the ground, eating various invertebrates, seeds, small fruits. This circumstance, that is, the omnivorousness of birds, attracts lovers to them. But this is not the main reason for the attractiveness of birds. Thymelia are smart, mobile birds that easily get used to humans and become tame, they are wonderful mockingbirds, and include the voices of various forest dwellers in their flute songs.
You never get tired of being amazed at their onomatopoeic abilities. Especially cleverly, the thymelia imitated chicken clucking. Chickens, after laying the next egg, begin to loudly notify others about this. This is done not only by domestic chickens, but also by their wild relatives. In a dense multi-tiered forest or in secondary low-growing forests, you can hear such clucking very often. So, most of these sounds are made not by chickens, but by thymelia.
Thymelia have long been caged by bird lovers in China, Southeast Asia and India. Usually they are placed in small cages, one bird at a time. In Vietnam, favorite pets are white-crested (Garrulax leucolophus), Chinese, or white-eared (Garrulax chinensis) thymelia, hvamei (Garrulax canorus) and some others. They are fairly large birds, about the size of a starling or larger.
White-crested thymelia is often found in European zoos. A couple of these birds have lived in the Moscow Zoo for many years. Their head and lower body are snow-white. On the head is a large crest of long feathers, reminiscent of the crest of a jay, for which this type of thymelia received another name - jay. The back is brown. A black stripe extends from the beak through the eye. This thimelia has a very loud voice. The song combines the sounds of a flute and rough laughter. In captivity, they sometimes breed. Mixed food - berries, various fruits, cereals, wet mash and insects.
White mistletoe in folk medicine
White mistletoe has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Most often, mistletoe drugs are prescribed for bleeding (uterine, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, with hemorrhoids).
White mistletoe berry. Photo: Wikipedia
Internal use of mistletoe medicines is effective for:
- Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines (gastritis, enteritis, colitis, etc.)
- Kidney disease (nephritis, etc.)
- Female diseases (uterus, inflammation of the appendages)
- Diseases of the nervous system (hysteria, obsessive states, increased anxiety).
External use of mistletoe cures skin diseases: abscesses, ulcers, psoriasis, joint diseases: gout, rheumatism, wounds, female diseases, hemorrhoids.
Infusion of white mistletoe (water)
A water infusion of mistletoe is simple to prepare, but it brings great benefits to the body:
- with heart disease,
- with epilepsy,
- in the treatment of tumors,
- stops bleeding,
- promotes the treatment of diseases of the nervous system,
- helps with diarrhea,
- facilitates the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis,
- enhances milk production in nursing mothers,
- improves bowel function,
- eliminates headaches.
A water infusion of white mistletoe is prepared as follows: pour 1.5 teaspoons of dry grass with a glass of boiling water, leave for an hour, and then strain through a sieve or cheesecloth. Take 3 times a day for 2 teaspoons before eating.
For hypertension, a cold method of preparing an aqueous mistletoe infusion is recommended: cool a glass of boiling water and pour a teaspoon of dry white mistletoe herb into it, leave for 8 hours in a warm place, and then strain. The resulting infusion should be drunk during the day in 3 divided doses. The course of treatment is three weeks after two until a clear improvement in well-being (normalization of blood pressure).
Alcohol tincture of white mistletoe
Unlike water infusion, alcoholic tincture of mistletoe can be used externally and internally to treat the above diseases.
To prepare an alcoholic tincture, pour 1 part of dry mistletoe herb with white parts of alcohol and leave for days in a dark place, shaking occasionally, and then strain.
Use 3 times a day, 40 drops minutes before meals. The duration of treatment with alcohol tincture of white mistletoe is 21 days. Between courses you need to take a break of 14 days.
External use of white mistletoe
For the treatment of arthritis and rheumatism, a decoction of white mistletoe is recommended, which is prepared as follows: 60 grams of dry white mistletoe herb is poured into 1 liter of boiling water and boiled for 5 minutes. After 20 minutes after turning off the hot mistletoe broth is filtered. Saturate the gauze or bandages with the cooled broth and apply to the sore spot.
For hemorrhoids, it is recommended to take a sitz bath in this broth.
White mistletoe for women
White mistletoe treats most women's diseases and is generally good for women's health.
Herbal collection based on white mistletoe is recommended for uterine fibroids, cervicitis, leucorrhoea, prolonged menstruation and other inflammatory processes of the female genital organs.
Method of preparation of the herbal collection: take the dried herb of mistletoe, shepherd's bag and highlander bird in equal shares and pour boiling water at the rate of 1 tbsp. spoon of herbal mixture in 200 ml of water. The duration of cooking herbal collection is 3 minutes. Cool slowly and strain.
Take half an hour before meals 2 times a day for weeksand then take a break for 14 days.
Mixture of mistletoe and sophora (vodka tincture)
A mixture of white mistletoe and sophora, infused with vodka, has a powerful medicinal effect on the human body, up to the fight against cancer cells.
White mistletoe grows on a deciduous tree. Photo: Wikipedia
It is recommended to use mistletoe and sophora tincture when treating:
- liver diseases
- kidney disease
- female diseases,
- diabetes mellitus,
- angina pectoris,
The tincture strengthens the body, cleanses the blood vessels, stops bleeding, regulates the heart, soothes the nerves, strengthens the capillaries and blood vessels.
Recipe for tincture of white mistletoe and Japanese Sophora:
- take two liter cans
- in one can, pour 250 grams of dry mistletoe herb with white 1 bottle of vodka (half a liter)
- in the second can, pour 100 grams of dry herb Sophora Japanese with half a liter of vodka
- infuse herbs for 30 days in a dark place
- mix both infusions together, mix and leave for 7 days.
Take tincture 3 times a day, 1 teaspoon 40 minutes before meals for 30 days... Break in treatment for 7 days after each course.
White mistletoe helps those who lose weight - some argue that in 5 days it helps to lose up to 5 kg of weight. There is no scientific evidence for this data, so you can experiment if you want. For obesity for weight loss, a herbal collection of mistletoe and linden is used.
First day: steam 4 tbsp. tablespoons of linden blossom with boiling water (1 liter) in a thermos. Cool and drink the linden infusion throughout the day.
Second day: steam 4 tbsp. tablespoons of dried mistletoe herb with white boiling water (1 liter) in a thermos. Cool and drink the mistletoe infusion throughout the day.
Third day: pour boiling water (2 liters) in a thermos in 2 tbsp. spoons of mistletoe and lime blossom herb. Cool and drink throughout the day.
Fourth day: fill in a thermos with boiling water (2 liters), 2 tbsp. spoons of mistletoe and lime blossom herb. Cool, add 2 teaspoons of honey and drink throughout the day.
Fifth day: pour boiling water (2 liters) in a thermos in 2 tbsp. spoons of mistletoe and lime blossom herb. Cool, add 2 tsp.tablespoons of honey and the juice of half a lemon, drink during the day.
White mistletoe is contraindicated in pregnant women and people with low blood pressure.
Remember, mistletoe is poisonous, so stick to the recommended dosage and duration of treatment.
White mistletoe is beautiful, but poisonous if consumed excessively
In late autumn or winter, young stems with leaves are collected from white mistletoe and dried without fruit, since they are poisonous, but birds, especially blackbirds, willingly eat them by cleaning their beaks from sticky seeds on tree branches, leaving seeds on the bark, where they then and germinate. Hence the popular name for mistletoe: birdlime... The mistletoe taste is peculiar, unpleasant and bitter.
In folk medicine, mistletoe was used and is used internally in the form of tinctures and decoctions for epilepsy, hypochondria, hysteria, for abdominal pain, as a hemostatic agent for uterine, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and for gastric bleeding, preparations from mistletoe are more effective when mixed with horsetail grass ...
Recently, it has been noticed that preparations from white mistletoe have a beneficial effect on the body with increased blood pressure.
Outwardly, a tincture, decoction or powder of white mistletoe is used as an emollient and anesthetic for abscesses.
White mistletoe preparations are used for irrigation and sitz baths for female diseases.
For round worms, a composite powder is effective: 0.5 g of mistletoe leaves, 0.5 g of mistletoe berries, 1.0 of valerian root, mix everything and take 0.5 g three times a day for 3 days. The powder should be washed down with water and seized with fresh carrots.
White mistletoe tea is drunk to raise the tone of life, weakened elderly people, and in case of dizziness - people of any age.
- Light broth: 15.0-200, one tablespoon three times a day.
- Tincture: 25.0, 30 drops three times a day.
- Broth-mixture (for external use): 15.0 mistletoe herbs and 10.0 yarrow each, water pepper, oak bark, stinging nettle herb and dull speckled flowers, mix and brew boiling water in a liter.
Literary source: Medicinal plants in folk medicine. A.P. Popov