Bird Families

Order Trogoniformes


Trogon-like (lat.Trogoniformes) - a detachment of new-palatine birds containing a single family - trogon (Trogonidae). The oldest fossil remains of trogoniforms date back to the Ypresian age of the Lower Eocene.


The only family of the trogon-like order is Trogon (Trogonidae) - includes 8 genera, 40 species (now living). One of the most famous representatives of the order is the quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno), which in Guatemala is the national symbol of the country - a symbol of freedom (indeed, the quetzal does not survive in captivity).

  • African trogons (Apaloderma)
    • African bridle trogon (Apaloderma narina)
    • Yellow-faced African trogon (Apaloderma aequatoriale)
    • Mountain African trogon, (Apaloderma vittatum)
  • Sunda trogons (Apalharpactes)
    • Blue-tailed trogon (Apalharpactes reinwardtii)
    • Sumatran trogon (Apalharpactes mackloti)
  • Long-eared trogons (Euptilotis)
    • Long-eared trogon, (Euptilotis neoxenus)
  • Asian trogons (Harpactes)
    • Malabar Asian trogon (Harpactes fasciatus)
    • Red-occipital Asian trogon (Harpactes kasumba)
    • Asian necklace trogon (Harpactes diardii)
    • Filipino Asian trogon (Harpactes ardens)
    • Whitehead's Asian trogon (Harpactes whiteheadi)
    • Brown-bellied Asian trogon (Harpactes orrhophaeus)
    • Red-nosed Asian trogon (Harpactes duvaucelii)
    • Red-headed Asian trogon (Harpactes erythrocephalus)
    • Green-headed Asian trogon (Harpactes oreskios)
    • Pink-tailed Asian trogon (Harpactes wardi)
  • Kwezali (Pharomachrus)
    • Quezal, (Pharomachrus mocinno)
    • Crested quetzal, (Pharomachrus antisianus)
    • Diamond quetzal, (Pharomachrus fulgidus)
    • (Pharomachrus auriceps)
    • Gold-headed quetzal, (Pharomachrus pavoninus)
  • Cuban trogons (Priotelus)
    • Cuban trogon, (Priotelus temnurus)
  • Haitian trogons (Temnotrogon)
    • Rose-bellied trogon, (Temnotrogon roseigaster)
  • True Trogon Trogon
    • Trogon melanocephalus
    • Gray-headed trogon (Trogon citreolus)
    • White-tailed trogon, (Trogon viridis)
    • (Trogon bairdii)
    • Purple trogon, (Trogon violaceus)
    • Mountain trogon (Trogon mexicanus)
    • Blue-tailed trogon (Trogon comptus)
    • Collar trogon, (Trogon collaris)
    • Copper trogon, (Trogon elegans)
    • Golden Belly Trogon (Trogon aurantiiventris)
    • Masked trogon (Trogon personatus)
    • Black-throated trogon, (Trogon rufus)
    • Trogon surrucura
    • Blue-capped trogon (Trogon curucui)
    • Black-tailed trogon, (Trogon melanurus)
    • Slap-tailed trogon (Trogon massena)
    • Hawk-tailed trogon (Trogon clathratus)

In addition to the currently existing genera, the trogon family includes three extinct genera. These are Paratrogon (Paratrogon, described in 1933, Lower - Middle Miocene of France), Primotrogon (Primotrogon, described in 1999, Middle Eocene of Germany and Lower Oligocene of France) and Septentrogon (Septentrogon, described in 2002, Lower Eocene of Denmark ).

Originally, the genus Archaeotrogon (described in 1892, Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene of France) was also assigned to the Trogonov family, in 1980 it was separated into a separate family Archaeotrogonidae, which is not yet included in any orders, but is brought closer to the goat-like and swift-like.


In appearance, they are typical tropical birds. They have a very bright color of plumage, in which green, red or blue tones prevail (as a rule, with a metallic sheen), the plumage is loose. They are characterized by medium and large sizes: the length of the body in most species ranges from 20 to 35 cm (the quetzal is much larger: its body length, including the tail, reaches 120 cm). The wings are short and rounded, have 10 primary flight feathers. The trogon's tail is long, there are 12 tail feathers. The beak is short and wide, the legs are weak, the tarsus is feathered. A distinctive feature of trogonals is the location of the toes: the first and second toes are directed backward, the third and fourth forward (while in other taxa of birds a different pattern can be traced: if two fingers are directed backward, then these are the first and fourth).


They live in tropical and subtropical forests of three parts of the world: America (from the southern borders of Texas and Arizona to Argentina), Asia (South and Southeast Asia), Africa (south of the Sahara, but without the southern tip of the mainland). They are found both in hot valleys and in cool zones of high mountains. Some species penetrate the cultural landscape: they nest on coffee plantations.


Trogons are sedentary and sedentary, they fly only over short distances. They feed, taking off from a branch and grabbing insects on the fly or picking small fruits, they also feed on mollusks. At the same time, in African species, insects predominate in the diet (which they - like flycatchers - catch on the fly), and in Asian and American species - fruits and berries (quetzal, on occasion, can grab a frog, lizard or snake).


Trogons are usually found either alone or in pairs (much less often in small groups). Monogamous. They nest in natural hollows, representatives of some species make nest holes in nests of woody termites and paper wasps (before making a hole in an aspen nest, the bird eats wasps and their larvae). The female lays directly on the bottom of the hollow from 2 to 4 roundish whitish eggs. Incubation (in which both the female and the male participate) lasts up to three weeks. The chicks develop according to the chick type, they are born without plumage and stay in the nest for 15 to 25 days.