Creeping gorchak (lat. Rhaponticum repens) is a perennial root-sucking plant of the Asteraceae family and is one of the most vicious and hard-to-eradicate weeds. For this reason, in many countries of the world, it is included in the list of dangerous quarantine objects.
The habitat of creeping bitterness was originally the steppe zones of Central Asia, from where the plant was later introduced to many regions with an arid climate (for example, Australia, the United States, and the southern part of the European continent).
Despite the quarantine and sanitary measures taken by the special services, today in Ukraine the total area of agricultural land contaminated with mustard has already reached more than 300 thousand hectares, posing a real threat to the entire steppe zone of the country.
Creeping bitterness grows, both on arable land, in orchards, vegetable gardens and vineyards, and on uncultivated areas: wastelands, meadows, pastures, along highways and dirt roads, along railways.
The plant has a well-developed and powerful root system that can penetrate up to 10 meters deep into the ground. At the same time, the weed absorbs moisture and nutrients 5 times faster than, for example, the same cereals.
Thanks to this feature, the weed can use groundwater that is inaccessible to other plants. In addition, creeping bitterness secretes special substances (phenol derivatives, as well as repin, acroptyline and hircanin), which are dangerous for many cultivated plants, since they inhibit their growth and development, retarding (inhibiting) the most important physiological and physicochemical processes.
Due to this feature, bitterness is able to reduce the yield of agricultural crops by up to 70%. At the same time, plants located in the epicenter of its root system are suppressed so strongly that they may not germinate at all.
The leaves and stems of creeping mustard contain poison, therefore, they pose a threat to the life of many animals (especially horses). However, some species, including goats and sheep, tolerate its effects quite persistently.
The weed spreads, usually along with clogged grain, straw, hay, meal, or along with vehicles and equipment.
In addition, the seeds of bitterness, passing through the digestive tract of animals, do not have time to be digested, therefore they do not lose their vitality and ability to germinate.
Description of creeping bitter
The plant has a branchy, faceted, pubescent stem and can reach a height of 70 centimeters.
The root system consists of a vertical core and horizontal roots and rhizomes extending in all directions.
Leaves are sessile, alternate toothed or dissected.
The flowering and fruiting process begins from the second year of life (in July-August).
The flower basket is single, rounded and about one centimeter in diameter. It is usually located at the end of the branches.
The flowers in the basket are tubular, bisexual, with a pinkish or light lilac tint.
The fruit is a smooth ovoid achene with a tuft. The seeds are 3.5 millimeters long.
Creeping mustard is spread, both with the help of root suckers and seeds, which have the ability to maintain a high degree of germination for up to five years.
A weed grown from a seed shows good resistance and has a longer life cycle than a plant grown from a root sucker. At the same time, he prefers moist soil, places well lit by the sun and high air temperatures.
During the first year, creeping bittersweet does not emit color and does not produce seeds, since its aerial part grows very slowly. For example, during the three months of the growing season, the plant only manages to form a rosette consisting of 5-7 leaves. But the root system of the weed during this time grows on an area of up to 6 meters, penetrating to a depth of about two meters.
As the bitterness develops, the roots gradually thicken, forming a large number of additional underground shoots, which form powerful rhizomes (at a depth of 20 to 60 centimeters) and dense clumps around the mother plant.
By the end of the second year, the weed can occupy an area of up to 12 (!) Square meters.
Weed control methods
A preventive measure against creeping bitterness is, first of all, careful processing and cleaning of seeds of cultivated plants, and first of all cereals, such as wheat, oats, barley and millet.
A combination of black fallow and solid sowing plants, which include rye, barley, alfalfa, oats, is considered an effective way of protecting against weeds, and which are capable of inhibiting the creeping bitterness with a well-developed and voluminous green mass.
A good effect is demonstrated by constant mowing of weed thickets, which must be started even before the plants start flowering in order to prevent the transfer of seeds to new areas along with melt water or with rain streams. It is advisable to destroy the mowed mass with fire.
An effective technique in the fight against creeping bitterness is regular pruning of its root system, as well as post-harvest stubble plowing, followed by deep autumn plowing and autumn rise of black fallows.
With regard to the use of herbicides, the most effective destruction of the weed root system are preparations based on imazapyr, such as Arsenal, Ac, Grader, Imperial and others.
Features and Description:
Sangvisorba has a thick, woody rhizome with a dark brown bark. It has a horizontal or inclined arrangement and is 12 centimeters long. The main root is covered with many fibrous processes.
Sangvisorba is considered decorative because of its delicate leaves and original inflorescences painted in red, pink or burgundy. Its growth can reach one and a half meters in height, and maybe 30 centimeters. Branching of ribbed and hollow stems begins at the apex. Bright green leaves on the outside and bluish-green on the inside are obovate. They are smooth with jagged edges and embossed veins. Leaves that end in a leaf blade that does not have its own pair form a basal rosette. The leaves covering the stem are in pairs.
Under natural conditions, the Sangvisorba flower grows in the northern part of the American continent and on the Eurasian continent in regions where a temperate climate prevails. He chooses places in sunny meadows and near rivers and lakes. A powerful root system allows this plant to grow rapidly and create impenetrable thickets.
Sanguisorba flower: photo
Head-shaped inflorescences are formed at the tips of the stems, their length is no more than 3 centimeters. In appearance, they resemble an ear, on which there are no petals, and the flowers are located close to each other. There are varieties whose flowers can be painted white like snow. The flowers of this plant contain stamens, pistils, bracts and ovaries. It begins to bloom in the middle of summer, and ends only at the end of September.
When flowering begins, the heavy, brightly colored inflorescences tilt the branches in different directions, which gives the plant a graceful look.
The length of the pear-shaped fruit does not exceed 3 mm. It is covered with a thin, smooth, light brown skin.
Seed reproduction method:
Propagating a Sangvisorbu flower using seeds is quite simple and does not take much time. Sowing is carried out in the fall directly on the garden plot. After the seeds are collected, they can be sown immediately.
First, you need to prepare the site by removing all the debris, clearing weeds and leveling the ground. After that, you need to make furrows, pour them with warm water and wait until the soil is saturated with it. Next, you need to plant the seeds evenly spreading along the furrows and lightly sprinkle with earth.
With the arrival of spring, the first shoots can be seen. This plant is unique in that it is absolutely not afraid of weeds, and constant temperature drops in spring and very actively grows and develops. Plants should be planted in early autumn. First, you need to prepare the planting holes at a distance of at least 50 centimeters, then carefully, without damaging the earthen lump, dig up and transfer them to a prepared place. As soon as the plant is planted, it is necessary to tamp the ground and water abundantly.
It is important to keep a distance when planting, as the plant grows in a short time.
Burnet will demonstrate its colorful flowering in the third year.
Sangvisorba actively reproduces by self-seeding. To prevent the garden from turning into thickets of this beautiful plant, it is necessary to cut off the inflorescences that have already faded in time.
Reproduction by dividing the roots:
At the age of five, the plant can be propagated by dividing the roots. By these years it will become massive, strong and have a lot of ramification. Reproduction in this way is carried out throughout the summer.
First of all, you need to dig out the bush, doing it as carefully as possible. Next, using a sterile and sharp knife, you need to divide the rhizome into parts. There can be many parts, the main thing is that each has a large root and several healthy buds. As soon as the rhizome is divided, all cuts must be processed using wood ash for this. This will protect the plant from the formation of rot on the wounds. After that, it is necessary to prepare planting holes, the width and depth of which will correspond to the size of the roots, at a distance of 60 centimeters from each other and plant new plants there.
When choosing a place to grow a Sangvisorba flower, it should be borne in mind that she loves to grow in open sunny areas, but is tolerant of a little shade. The soil loves loose, with good water permeability, well-drained with a low level of acidity and with a lot of nutrients. To increase fertility, you can add compost or humus to the area where it will grow in the spring. You can use complex mineral fertilizers in granules and add them to the wells before planting. The plant is not tolerant of moisture stagnation, so lowlands are not suitable for growing.
Sangvisorba is a moisture-loving plant, so regular watering will be the most important for it. Under natural conditions, it grows close to rivers and lakes, therefore, in order for the plant to grow and develop well, it is necessary that the soil is always moist, but at the same time so that the water does not stagnate.
Weeds do not interfere with the burnet, it easily copes with them, taking water and nutrients from them. They need to be removed only for a beautiful type of flower bed and a neat area. Loosening must be carried out so that the trigger does not form and oxygen can easily and in large quantities flow to the roots, which will contribute to active growth.
During the growing season, you need to feed the plants three times. This should be done in early spring using complex mineral and organic fertilizers. They are introduced one by one. Fertilizers in liquid form are not applied to the base of the bush. For this, furrows are made near the bush and fertilizers are poured there.
To support the flowering time of plants, you can install supports next to the bush and tie them up.
Disease and Pest Resistance:
Sangvisorba very rarely gets sick and is affected by pests.
Harmful insects can appear only if a nearby growing plant is affected by them. Insecticides will help to cope with them.
In the event of a mosaic pattern or rot, it is necessary to remove all damaged parts as soon as possible and treat the plant with fungicidal preparations.
Preparing for winter:
Sangvisorba is an excellent plant that can be grown in regions with even the harshest winters. Burnet does not need shelter, no matter how low the temperature is shown by the thermometer.
Benefits of Sangvisorba:
As mentioned above, the plant got its name due to the fact that it has a hemostatic effect. For the manufacture of a drug, its roots are used, which are a storehouse of useful substances.
- Organic acids, which are involved in the breakdown of salt and fat, and also normalize the acid-base balance in the body,
- The content of tannins allows horses to be used to relieve inflammation and improve digestion,
- Starch stimulates insulin production, lowers bad cholesterol,
- The content of ascorbic acid makes the plant useful for immunity, for preserving youth, since thanks to it collagen is produced, it has a beneficial effect on the liver,
- Thanks to the old days, the heart rate is normalized, the appetite decreases, and allergic reactions pass more easily,
- Carotenes restore bone tissue, improve metabolism, prevent tumor formation,
- Thanks to essential oils, metabolism is normalized, intestinal function is improved and the nervous system is restored,
- The content of micro- and macroelements makes the plant useful for the whole organism.
Traditional healers often use Sangvisorb roots to make infusions with antimicrobial, antispasmodic, tonic and wound healing effects. They can be applied internally and can serve as an external remedy.
Decoctions are not prepared in advance, they must always be fresh. For cooking, you need pieces of root, which must be boiled and allowed to cool. The broth is even used to treat diarrhea in infants. To do this, they need to be given a teaspoon of such a drug. Such a remedy can be used only strictly after consulting a doctor. It is impossible to self-medicate here, so as not to harm the child. Skin inflammations in adults are also treated with a decoction in the form of lotions.
Leaves and flowers can be used to brew teas. They help to get rid of head pain, relieve swelling on the gums, relieve the condition of people suffering from hemoptysis.
To prepare an alcoholic tincture, it is necessary to dissolve the crushed dried roots (3 tablespoons) in a glass of vodka and insist for three weeks in a dark room. With menstrual pain, two drops of this infusion are enough to remove them. The same number of drops are used for blood clots in blood vessels, in acute hypertension and if hemorrhoids are tortured. Application is possible only after consulting a doctor.
To treat the mucous membrane and skin, it is necessary to dilute the infusion with water and rinse or make lotions using cotton swabs.
Remember that despite all the benefits of the plant, they can be used for treatment only after consulting a doctor. Pregnant and lactating women, allergy sufferers and parents with young children should remember that the use of folk remedies is possible only under the supervision of doctors.
Using Sangvisorba in cooking:
In addition to the fact that the plant has medicinal properties, good decorative qualities, it can also be used in cooking. Fish and meat dishes, salads can complement the leaves, and the romance of which is the same as that of cucumber. They will go well in cocktails too.
A boiled large root can serve as a side dish for a meat dish. In Asian countries, aromatic teas are made from this plant.
Collection and storage of the Sangvisorba flower
Raw materials are harvested when the plant has already faded, but the seeds have not yet begun to ripen. The material is taken only from those plants that have reached the age of five.It is necessary to dig up the plant, peel the roots, cut off its parts and plant the rest again. The rhizome is thoroughly washed with cold cork water and sent to dry in fresh air. A good option would be a balcony.
The stems do not need to be removed from the roots until the plant is dry.
Cut narrow strips from the roots and dry them in the oven at 45 degrees. Do not expose them to higher temperatures, as this will lead to the loss of all useful properties. The finished raw materials must be stored in paper bags in a dry place. Shelf life is 5 years.
Sangvisorba: popular varieties
At the moment, it is known about 20 plant species belonging to the genus Sangvisorba. But only a small part of them and their varieties are grown by gardeners as a cultivated plant.
Medicinal (Sanguisorba officinalis) - the unique medicinal properties of this plant are known all over the world. It is included in the Red Book and is protected by Russia, Ukraine and Latvia. Sangvisorba Officialis has erect, herbaceous green stems. Leaves that end in a leaf blade that does not have its own pair form a basal rosette. The leaves are ovoid and are covered with denticles at the edges. The stems are covered with paired leaves. The inflorescences of Sanguisorba Officialis are collected from a variety of purple and burgundy flowers, densely located in it.
Sangvisorba Officialis: photo of the variety
This type includes a variety:
- Pink tanna - graceful bushes decorated with drooping spike-shaped pink inflorescences,
- Tanna - a compact bush in length grows up to 80 centimeters, during flowering it is covered with hard, dense scarlet or burgundy inflorescences.
Dumb (Sanguisorba obtusa) - is especially common in the land of the rising sun in the highlands. It has herbaceous stems that grow up to 100 centimeters in length and is covered with fluffy, large and drooping bright pink inflorescences. Alba "one of the varieties, has fluffy snow-white paniculate inflorescences. Branches begin their branching from the base of the bush. Cirrus leaves make up a basal rosette. Leaves with jagged edges are painted gray with a green tint.
Menzies (Sanguisorba menziesii) - has bare erect flowering stems up to 120 centimeters long. Bushes begin to bloom in early summer, covered with fluffy bright pink inflorescences 7 centimeters long. Leaves that end in a leaf blade that does not have its own pair form a basal rosette. The leaves reach 25 centimeters in length.
Alpine (Sanguisorba alpina) - the height of these attractive bushes is from 40 to 80 centimeters. Heart-shaped leaves covered the stems profusely. The bush blooms with beautiful yellow-green flowers collected in inflorescences about 8 centimeters long.
Canadian (Sanguisorba canadensis) - this species is native to the northern part of the American continent. It grows in its natural environment in meadows where there is high humidity. If you give the plant a sufficient amount of moisture, then it will reach two meters in height. During flowering, its strong, straight stems are covered with delicate white inflorescences.
Thin-leaved (Sanguisorba tenuifolia) - powerful branchy stems of this plant reach two meters in height. It blooms magnificently and profusely. Its white and purple inflorescences, which are 7 centimeters long, cover the entire bush.
Sangvisorba as a garden decoration:
Large green bushes can be used to decorate paths, walls and various garden structures. Plants planted in groups will look spectacular on the lawn.
Throughout the season, this plant pleases with its bright colors. It is then that Sangvisorba will be able to decorate the flowerbed sitting in the background. Low-rise varieties can decorate alpine slides and gardens while maintaining a natural style.
Sangvisorba will feel great next to ornamental cereals, astilbe, cornflowers, lilies and roses.
When autumn comes, Sangvisorba reveals himself in a new way. Its green leaves turn bright orange or yellow and color the garden with these flowers for a long time, creating a cozy atmosphere.
Fresh cut flowers collected in bouquets can become a decoration of the house for a long time.