Bird Families

RED BOOK

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In the book version

Volume 26. Moscow, 2014, p. 510

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RUNNERS, marsh chickens (Porzana), a genus of birds of this. shepherd neg. cranes. Length from 12.5 cm with a mass of 24 (20-28) g in yellow-breasted P. (P. flaviventer) to 24 cm and 87 (47-147) g, respectively, in common P. (P. porzana). The head is small, the beak is shorter than the head, straight, high at the base, the neck is short, the legs and front fingers are long, which allows P. to walk on the leaves and stems of floating plants. The wings are small, rounded, the tail is short, soft, usually raised. The color of the top in most species is variegated, patronizing, with dark spots and light edging, less often monochromatic, brown, brown or black, gray, bluish-gray, reddish-red or buffy tones prevail on the underside, a transverse pattern is developed on the sides of the body and under the tail from dark and light stripes. 13 species of P. live on all continents, except Antarctica, and many oceanic. islands, 5 more island species became extinct in the 16th – 20th centuries. They prefer reservoirs with dense coastal vegetation, swamps and damp meadows; in the mountains they settle up to the height. 4080 m (Andes). In Russia, 5 migratory species nest: common P., small P. (P. parva), baby crab (P. pusilla), red-footed P. (P. fusca), and large P. (P. paykullii). The last two species are found only in the Far East, and the common P. - in Europe. parts of the country and in Zap. Siberia (as far as Lake Baikal), small P. and crumbling pogonysh - predominantly. in the south of the forest and in the steppe zones of Europe. parts. P. are active hl. arr. at dusk, some at night. They are omnivorous, they eat many others. aquatic insects and their larvae, spiders, earthworms, molluscs, crustaceans and small fish, as well as seeds and vegetative parts of aquatic plants (especially sedges, hedgehogs, mountain dwellers). Monogamy, mating, often repeated cry of a male common P. sounds like a sharp whistle "whit", reminiscent of the whistle of a whip (hence the name). Nests are usually located in grassy thickets near or above water, on a hummock, in the center of a bush. Clutches of 2–14 (usually 4–9) eggs are incubated by both parents for 16–24 days. Hatching of chicks lasts 1–3 days, juveniles acquire the ability to fly at the age of 35–50 days, parents take care of the brood up to 4–5 months. Some species have 2 clutches per season. In the IUCN Red Book, in addition to 5 extinct, there are 2 vulnerable P. species, and the red-footed carrion is included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.

Short description

Large chase (Porzana paykullii) Is a medium-sized shell (weight up to 132 g). The coloration of males and females is the same. In breeding plumage, the upper side of the head and body are brown with an olive tint. The sides of the head, neck, goiter and chest are chestnut-red. The throat, chin and middle of the abdomen are white. There are numerous sharp white and black transverse stripes on the ventral sides and undertail. The beak is bluish-gray, the legs are red.

Spread

The large snout inhabits East Asia from the Amur basin to northeastern China and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

Distributed in the southern and central regions of the Amur region: nests in the valley of the river. Amur near the village. Kumar, near the city of Blagoveshchensk [2, 3], up the valley of the river. Selemdzha to the village. Novorossiyka, on the banks of the river. Zeya near the village. Novopetrovka, up the valley of the river. Zeya up to Zeya and the mouth of the river. Pikan, on the Amuro-Zeya plateau near the village. Klimoutsy, in the Norsk reserve, on the Arkharinskaya lowland and up the river. Bureya to the former s. Jelunda.

Habitats and biology

Large crabs nest on damp sedge and sedge-reed bush bogs in combination with rare tree and shrub thickets, individual trees and groves along river valleys and lake shores, as well as on meadows of various degrees of moisture. Along the river valleys it penetrates into the foothills.

In the vicinity of Zeya, it inhabits birch-larch woodlands, and in the floodplain of the river. Zeya is a hummock-hollow mari. It settles on the shores of small reservoirs, does not avoid the proximity of settlements.

Spring migrations take place in the first half of June. The nesting period is June-July. Monogamous.

The nest is a depression in the ground among the grass, often on sedge tussocks. There are six to nine in the clutch. Both partners incubate for about 20 days.

The nest found near the village. Novopetrovka June 24, 1961, contained seven eggs, July 3, 2009 in the Khingansky reserve - eight fresh eggs. In the brood encountered on July 19, 1961 near the village. Klimouts, there were four downy chicks. In the vicinity of Blagoveshchensk, two nests with clutches of three and six eggs were found on June 15, 1967. Autumn migrations were recorded in September and early October.

Population, limiting factors and threats

On the Arkharinskaya lowland, a large rush is common, in the valley of the lower reaches of the river. Zeya is numerous, in the Norsky Nature Reserve it is common with an abundance index of 0.1 pairs / 10 km of the river. Nora [8, 15]. At the city of Zeya in June 1973, the abundance was 9.3 and 8.4 individuals / km². The relative nesting number near the village. Arkhara and in the valley of the river. Tarmanchukan - up to 1.5 pairs / km², in the valley of the river. Bureya near the village. Bakhirevo - about 2 pairs / km², and in the Antonovskoye forestry of the Khingansky Reserve - up to 3 pairs / km².

On the coasts of small reservoirs of the Zeya-Bureya Plain in June 1989, the number was 0.6 individuals per 1 km of the route. In Muravyov Park in 2013, the absolute number was estimated at 50-100 mating males, although significant variations in density were noted over the years.

Limiting factors and threats have not been identified.

Taken and necessary security measures

Large chase (Porzana paykullii) is included in the IUCN Red List with the NT category: close to threatened and the Red Book of Primorsky Krai. Protected in the Khingansky, Norsky and Zeysky reserves.

No special protection measures have been taken, it is necessary to preserve habitats. The rarity status and the category of protection priority can be revised, since the abundance is kept at a fairly high level (refers to the background species) and no specific threats to the population in the Amur Region have been identified.

Sources of information

1. Stegmann B.K. Die Vogel des dauro-mandschurischen Uebergangsgebietes // J. fur Ornithologie. Jg. 78. Heft. 4. Berlin, 1930. P. 389-471.

2. Barancheev L.M. Game birds of the Amur region // Scientific notes of the Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical and Teacher Institute. 1953. T. 5. S. 3-78.

3. Pankin N.S. About waterfowl and near-water birds of the city of Blagoveshchensk // Animal world of the Far East: Collection of scientific papers. Blagoveshchensk, 2002. Issue. 4.S. 13-24.

4. Smogorzhevsky L.A. On the border of the Chinese avifaunistic complex in the Selemdzhi river basin // Scientific reports of the higher school. Biological Sciences. 1966. No. 2. S. 28-31.

5. Dymin V.A., Efremov V.F., Pankin N.S. About nesting of some birds of the Upper Amur Region // Notes of the Amur Regional Museum of Local Lore. Blagoveshchensk, 1970. T. 6. Issue. 1.S. 77-86.

6. Ilyashenko V.Yu. On the birds of the Upper Zeya basin // Distribution and biology of birds in Altai and the Far East: Proceedings of the ZIN AN SSSR. L., 1986.T. 150.S. 77-81.

7. Neifeldt I.A. Downy chicks of some Asian birds // Ornithological collection. Proceedings of the ZIN of the USSR Academy of Sciences. L .: Nauka, 1970.Vol. 47.P. 111-182.

8. Kolbin V.A. Birds of the Norsk reserve // ​​Collection of articles for the 5th anniversary of the Norsk reserve. Blagoveshchensk-Fevralsk, 2003.S. 76-80.

9. Antonov A.I., Parilov M.P. Assessment of the current status of protected bird species in the east of the Amur region // Amur zoological journal. 2009. I (3). S. 270-274.

10. Kistyakovsky A.B., Smogorzhevsky L.A. About the border of the Chinese avifaunistic complex on the river. Bureya // Scientific. report higher. schools. Biol. science. 1964. No. 3. S. 26-29.

11. Kislenko G.S., Leonovich V.V., Nikolaevsky L.A. Materials for the study of birds in the Amur region // Ecology and distribution of birds in the south of the Far East. Vladivostok: FEB USSR Academy of Sciences, 1990.S. 90-105.

12. Dugintsov V.A., Pankin N.S. Water and near-water birds of small reservoirs of the Zeya-Bureya plain // Flora and fauna of Primorsky Krai and adjacent regions. Ussuriysk, 1991.S. 208-210.

13. The data of A.I. Antonov and M.S. Babykina.

14. Data of I.A. Neifeldt and V.A. Nechaev.

15. Kolbin V.A. The avifauna of the Norsk reserve and adjacent territories: a modern overview // Amur zoological journal. 2017.Vol. IX (1). S. 49-71.

16. Heim W., Smirenski S.M. The importance of Muraviovka Park (Far East Russia) for endangered bird species on regional, national and international scale based on observations from 2011-2016 // Forktail. 2017.33.P. 77-83.

17. BirdLife International 2016. Zapornia paykullii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016.

Great Chase - Porzana paykullii

Great Chase - Porzana paykullii

Larger than other carriages, the dorsal side is brown, the sides are with brown and white transverse stripes, the belly and cheeks are red, the undertail is striped, the legs are dark.

Breeds in damp meadows and bush bogs in the south of the Far East. In clutch there are 6-9 buffy eggs with brown spots. The voice is a metallic trill.

Encyclopedia of the Nature of Russia. - M .: ABF. R.L. Boehme, V.L. Dinets, V.E. Flint, A.E. Cherenkov. 1998.

  • Red-footed chase
  • White-winged chase

See what "Big Pogonysh" is in other dictionaries:

big chase - didžioji švygžda statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Corethrura paykullii, Porzana paykullii angl. band bellied crake vok. Mandarinsumpfhuhn, n rus. large pogonysh, m pranc. marouette mandarin, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas -… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Baby Carrier - Porzana pusilla see also 9.2.3. Genus Pogonysh Porzana Pogonysh crumb Porzana pusilla It is very similar to the small pogonysh, but smaller, the stripes on the sides are black, the base of the beak is greenish, the back is in white dots. Nests in swamps and boggy ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Common carrion - Porzana porzana see also 9.2.3. Genus Porzana Porzana Porzana porzana The dorsal side is dark brown with black streaks and white dots, the ventral side is gray with white spots, the undertail is light. Noticeably darker than corncrake ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Small pogonysh - Porzana parva see also 9.2.3. Genus Pogonysha Porzana Lesser pogonos Porzana parva Dorsal side brown, ventral gray or buffy. The bill is reddish at the base, the undertail is with sharp transverse stripes. On the sides there are gray stripes. ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Red-footed chase - Porzana fusca see also 9.2.3. Genus Pogonyshi Porzana Red-legged pogonat Porzana fusca The dorsal side is uniformly dark, the sides are brown, the belly and cheeks are red-chestnut, the undertail is striped, the legs are red. Breeds in meadows and river floodplains ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

White-winged chase - Porzana exquisita see also 9.2.3. Genus Porzana Pogonysh Porzana exquisita Smaller than starling, brownish dorsal with dark longitudinal stripes and white transverse stripes, light belly, sides with transverse ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Laysan pogonysh - † Laysan chase Laysan chase with a brood. Illustration by J. G. Kölemans, 1893 1900 ... Wikipedia

White-winged chase - White-winged chase ... Wikipedia

List of birds of Russia - Contents 1 Birds of Russia 1.1 Order Storks, or Annealed Ciconiiformes ... Wikipedia

Shepherd's - Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) ... Wikipedia

Greater Chaser / Zapornia paykullii

Features: It differs from the small pogonysh and the crumbs-crumbs by a non-striped undertail and larger sizes, from a corncrake - by a dark color, a red base of the beak.

Habits: Active in the evening and at night. It keeps secretively, takes off rarely and reluctantly, flies off close and immediately dives into the grass. The flight, however, is rather fast, direct; the bird flies up from the ground almost silently. Runs fast. Walks well on flooded plants and leaves of water lilies, rarely swims.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects, worms, molluscs, to a lesser extent seeds.
Breeding area: Various landscapes from forests to deserts. On the shores of lakes, overgrown with reeds or sedge, channels, oxbows and backwaters, on grassy bogs, damp meadows and boggy bushes.
Location of the socket and its description: On a hummock or in a crease of a reed, always covered. The nest is small, built of leaves and stems of grasses.
Egg laying time: from May
Eggs color and size: Dirty buffy or greenish buffy with reddish or brown spots, 3.5x2.5 cm.

Lesser Gauntlet (Porzana parva)

Appearance: The top is olive-brown with dark streaks, the neck and bottom are slate-gray, without sharp stripes, the undertail is striped, the beak is red at the base and yellow at the end, the legs are greenish, the throat and breast of the female are buffy.
The size: From a starling.

Features: It differs from the crumb-crusher by the red base of the beak and the absence of sharp stripes on the sides (young ones - only by the brown color of the outer webs of the first flight feather), from the crushers - by their small size and striped undertail.

Habits: In behavior, it is similar to an ordinary chase, but it willingly swims and dives well, on the water it looks like a miniature reed. Perfectly climbs and runs on reed stalks and floating plants. Breeds in separate pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Small insects, spiders, worms, seeds.
Breeding area: Various landscapes from forests to deserts. Along the densely overgrown shores of lakes, channels and oxbows, preferring relatively deep reservoirs.
Location of the socket and its description: On reed stalks above the water. The nest is similar to that of a common carrion, but more compact.
Egg laying time: from May
Eggs color and size: Yellowish gray with vague reddish spots, 3x2 cm.

Baby girl (Porzana pusilla)

Appearance: It looks like a small pogonysh, but smaller, there are sharp white stripes on the sides, the base of the beak is greenish, the legs are yellowish.
The size: From a starling.

Features: It differs from the small pogonysh in the green base of the beak, sharp stripes on the sides, yellowish paws (the caught bird is the white color of the outer fan of the first flight feather).

Habits: Behavior like a small carrion, but swims less willingly.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects, less often small mollusks.
Breeding area: Various landscapes from forests to deserts. Along the densely overgrown shores of lakes, channels and oxbows, preferring relatively deep reservoirs.
Location of the socket and its description: On a bump or in a pile of reeds. The nest is looser than that of the small pug.
Egg laying time: from May
Eggs color and size: Yellowish gray with vague reddish spots, 3x2 cm.

Great chase (Porzana paykullii)

Appearance: The dorsal side is monophonic, olive-brown, without streaks, the sides of the head, neck and chest are bright, chestnut-red, on the sides there are brown and white transverse stripes. The female and young birds are paler.
The size: Larger than a starling.

Features: It differs from carriages and corncrake in its bright chestnut-red chest.

Habits: Secretive bird. It keeps on the ground in dense thickets of grass or willow. The activity is predominantly nocturnal. Runs very fast in dense grass. It rises into the air only in case of extreme need and flies not far, in flight its legs hang down. Very loud. Breeds in separate pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Meadow lowlands and river valleys within the forest zone. On hummocky, not too damp meadows and marshes with thickets of shrubs, avoiding excessively humid areas, it is often found near villages along the edges of fields and vegetable gardens.
Location of the socket and its description: In a dry place, in dense grass. The nest is a small depression in the soil, lined with grass stalks.
Egg laying time: from May
Eggs color and size: Whitish-buffy with pale gray spots, 3.5x2.5 cm.

White-winged Chase (Porzana exquisita)

Appearance: The smallest of the chasers (much smaller than the starling). The top is blackish with brown streaks and transverse white streaks, the abdomen is whitish, the spot on the crease of the wing and the "speculum" are white.
The size: Less starling.

Features: It differs from all chasers in small size and white spots on the wings.

Nature of stay: Migrant.

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