Bird Families

Mountain Pipit / Anthus spinoletta

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Second edition. First publication: Tsvelykh A.H. 1997. Mountain pipit Anthus spinoletta (Passeriformes, Motacillidae) in Crimea // Vestn. zool. 31, 5/6: 104-106.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "Mountain pipit anthusspinoletta in Crimea"

Akhtarsk on the stubble of a corn field (the stuffed animal is in the regional club of hunters), in the same autumn two birds were caught in the region of Yeisk (a stuffed animal of one of them is in the Yeisk Museum of Local Lore).

Alferaki S.N. 1910. Birds of the Eastern Azov region // Ornitol. vestn. 1: 11-35, 2: 73-93, 3: 162-170, 4: 245-252.

Vinokurov A.A. 1963. Aerovisual absolute registration of ankle birds in the floodplains of the Kuban delta // Organization and methods of registration of birds and harmful rodents. M .: 111116.

Vinokurov A.A., Dubrovsky E.B. (1956) 2016. White-tailed Sandpiper Calidris temmin-

ckii in the North Caucasus // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 25 (1327): 3113. Oleinikov N.S., Kazakov E.A., Reshetnikov Yu.I. and others 1967. About rare birds of the Eastern Azov region // Tr. 1st zool. conf. University of Nalchik. Nalchik. Ochapovsky V.S. 1962. On the biology of waders of the Eastern Azov region // Ornithology 4: 276-287.

Ptushenko E.S. (1915) 2011. On the avifauna of the Kuban region // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 20 (712): 2469-2471.

A.M. Sudilovskaya 1951. Order of copepods Steganopodes or Pelecaniformes // Birds

Soviet Union. M., 1: 13-69. Shekhov A.G. 1963. Nests of swans in the Kuban estuaries // Nature 10: 127-128.

Russian Ornithological Journal 2017, Volume 26, Express Issue 1534: 5134-5137

Mountain pipit Anthus spinoletta in Crimea

Second edition. First published in 1997 *

The status of the mountainhorse Anthus spinoletta in Crimea is rather mysterious. I.I.Puzanov (Pusanov 1933) considered the mountainhorse to be an ordinary wintering bird of the Crimean foothills. In 1928-1929, he regularly observed flocks of these birds in the vicinity of Simferopol from November 18 to January 29. These dates are confirmed by the collection (card index of the Zoological Museum of the National Scientific Research Museum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). In the same places, the November (November 26) 1929 specimen of II Puzanov and the January specimen (January 29) of 1978 LK Ruev (from a flock of 10-15 birds (Kostin 1983)) were taken. (a male who began to acquire a mating outfit) was found in the collection of the Zoological Museum of the National Research and Development Agency of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (MA Osipova, oral communication) among the red-throated pipits Anthus cervinus, caught in the northwestern Crimea.

* Tsvelykh A.H. 1997. Mountain pipit Anthus spinoletta (Passeriformes, Motacillidae) in Crimea // Vestn. zool. 31, 5/6: 104-106.

This specimen (obtained on March 16, 1979), which, due to the intense red coloration of the goiter and upper part of the chest, is indeed strikingly similar to the red-throated pipit, gave grounds for erroneously indicating (Kostin 1983) the unusually early dates of the start of migration of the red-breasted pipit in Crimea. In fact, their migration begins only in the second half of April. According to the analysis of long-term collections by Yu.V. Kostin, the first meeting of this species in the Crimea was on April 20, 1978 (the village of Portovoe) *.

Thus, we have to admit that the mountain pipit in the Crimea is a rare and sometimes common wintering bird. True, the rarity of sightings can be explained by the fact that in the autumn-winter plumage this species is practically indistinguishable (in the field) from other species of pipit, for example, from the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, which regularly hibernates in Crimea.

Where can mountain skates come from in Crimea? This question can be partially answered by analyzing the subspecies of the Crimean birds. It is generally accepted that mountain horses of two subspecies are noted in the Crimea. Yu.V. Kostin (1983), referring to the opinion of L.S. Stepanian, attributed the 1978 specimen to the Scandinavian subspecies A. s. litto-ralis C.L. Brehm, 1823. However, careful examination and comparison of this specimen with typical A. s. littoralis leaves no doubt that it cannot belong to this particular subspecies. It completely lacks the greenish or olive tint of plumage on the upper side of the body, so characteristic of Scandinavian birds, a well-developed white color on the extreme tail feathers, and the streaks on the lower side of the body are clearly lighter than in A. s. littoralis. In general, this specimen does not differ at all from other mountain horses caught in the Crimea in the autumn-winter period.

Comparing birds caught in the Crimea with specimens from France and Germany, I.I. Puzanov (Pusanov 1933) attributed them to the nominative subspecies, however, noted that they differ from specimens from France in the greater development of white on tail feathers, a slightly lighter belly and are similar with autumn birds from Germany. In this regard, it should be noted that the noted features are characteristic of the Caucasian mountain pipit subspecies A. s. coutellii (Audouin, 1828). For some reason, the Crimean specimens have never been compared with the birds of this subspecies, and the nesting sites of the Caucasian mountain pipits are at least two times closer to the Crimea than the nearest European nesting sites, which, moreover, are separated from them by a significant water barrier. Comparison of Crimean birds with Caucasian ones. Balkan and Carpathian specimens shows that small

* In the collection of the Zoological Museum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine there is a specimen obtained in the vicinity of Evpatoria on April 7, 1903 (according to the new style).

the size, lighter coloration of the upper part and greater development of white on tail feathers indicate that they belong to the Caucasian subspecies.

It is known that some of the mountain pipits nesting in the Caucasus migrate to more southern regions, and some winter in the foothills, where they roam rather widely (Gladkov 1954) *. Apparently, during these wanderings, some of the birds can get to the Crimea. Perhaps these flights occur sporadically - in accordance with the pulsation of the northwestern border of the nesting area in the Caucasus (a certain cyclical occurrence of mountain pipits in the Crimea is also indicated by the fact that they met here for at least two seasons in a row (1928-1929 and 1978-1979) , then were not noted at all.

This assumption is supported by the following circumstance. In the same period, when mountain pipits were a common wintering bird of Crimea, in the Northwestern Caucasus they nested on treeless peaks of low mountains less than 100 km southeast of Novorossiysk, while later, in the 1950s, this species it was no longer met there (Volchanetsky et al. 1962). It can also be assumed that during such periods, mountain pipits sporadically nested in the mountainous Crimea, wintering in the foothills. This may explain even better the regular encounters of wintering flocks of mountain pipits in the Crimean foothills than the assumption of autumn-winter migrations in an unusual northwest direction for the species. The fact that some bird species can quickly colonize Crimea from the Caucasus is illustrated by the recently established fact of rapid colonization of the Mountain Crimea by the common lentil Carpodacus erythrinus of the Caucasian subspecies C. e. kubanensis Laubmann, 1915 (Tsvelykh 1993).

Thus, the pulsation of the northwestern border of the nesting area of ​​the mountain pipit in the Caucasus could contribute to the periodic appearance of mountain pipits during the winter in the Crimea, and possibly to the sporadic nesting of this species in the mountains of the Crimea.

Volchanetsky I.B., Puzanov I.I. Petrov V.S. 1962. Materials on the avifauna of the Northwest Caucasus // Tr. Research Institute of Biol. and biol. Faculty of Kharkov. University 32: 7-72. Gladkov N.A. 1954. The family of wagtails Moicillatae // Birds of the Soviet Union.

M., 5: 594-691. Yu.V. Kostin 1983. Birds of Crimea. M: 1-141.

Panchenko V.A., Zhmud M.E. 1986. Encounters of rare birds in the Kiliya Danube delta // Ornithology 21: 141.

Tsvelykh A.N. 1993. Faunistic surprise: the nesting of lentils (Carpodacus erythus) in the Crimea // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2, 1: 94-96.

* It should be said that this feature is also typical for European mountain skates. However, the routes of their wanderings are far from the Crimea: the nearest meeting of wintering birds is the Danube Delta (Panchenko. Zhmud 1987).

Pusanov J. 1933. Versuch einer Revision der taurishen Ornis // Bul. MOIP. Dept. biol. 17, 1: 3-41

Russian Ornithological Journal 2017, Volume 26, Express issue 1534: 5137-5138

Spring meetings of the waxwing Bombycilla garrulus in the Western Tien Shan

Second edition. First published in 1968 *

Waxworms Bombycilla garrulus garrulus periodically make large winter migrations, during which individual flocks of birds reach the countries of Southern Europe, Western Asia and Asia Minor. In 1966, waxwings were encountered by us in the spring in the southwestern forts of the Chat-Kalsky ridge and for several days were observed in the foothill village of Parkent.On the southern slopes of the mountains, the snow melted completely, and on the northern slopes it lay only in small spots along the watersheds (the winter of 1966 in Central Asia was exceptionally mild, and the spring was early, but prolonged). On March 23, in the valley of the Bash-Kizylsay river (Angren system), at an altitude of 1200 m above sea level, a flock of 5 waxwings was encountered. From this flock, two waxwings were taken: a male and a female, whose gonads were completely at rest. In the stomachs of the caught birds, blossoming leaf buds of the yellow-fruited boyarka and a large number of small insects from the "air plankton" were found.

On March 24, in the Sokhtagonsai valley, which flows into Bash-Kizylsay, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level. there was a second meeting. During the day, it was drizzling with rain, turning into snow in the evening. Then the upper part of the mountains was enveloped in fog, its edge quickly crawled down the slopes, and, trying to get ahead of it, flocks of Alectoris chukar chukaris, Turdus viscivorus and especially many black-throated thrush Turdus atrogularis began to descend into the valley. Among the birds fleeing from sudden bad weather, there were waxwings, which could be recognized by the characteristic sounds they made in flight. Three flocks of waxwings flew down, of which there were up to 200 in total. After a while, when everything around was clouded with fog, one could hear another flock flying down. Thus, it can be assumed that there were about 250 birds in total.

* Taranenko L.I. 1968. Spring meetings of the waxwing in the Western Tien Shan // Ornithology 9: 376-377. Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2017. Volume 26. Express Edition No. 1534 5

Meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis)

Appearance: Very similar to the forest pipit, but the hind toe claw is long, slightly curved.
The size: Body length = 15-16cm, weight = 16-18g. Less sparrow.

Features: The meadow pipit differs from the forest pipit and the spotted pipit by the long claw of the hind toe, and from the Siberian pipit by the lighter olive-gray upper body.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. Sings in the air. It keeps in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects, spiders. It feeds on the ground.
Feature article
Breeding area: Damp meadows, grassy and mossy bogs, mossy and stony tundra.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground.
Egg laying time: April - July
Eggs color and size: Grayish, yellowish or greenish with brown spots, 2x1.5 cm.

Field pipit (Anthus campestris)

Appearance: It is very similar to the steppe pipit, but slightly smaller, grayer and the underparts are buffy-whitish with a brownish tinge on the sternum, the sides, sometimes brown longitudinal streaks are visible on the chest, white stripes on the sides of the tail.
The size: Body length = 17-19cm, weight = 22-24g. C sparrow.

Features: The field pipit differs from the steppe pipit by a more gray coloration of the top and a smaller size.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. Sings on the ground and sitting on the upper branches of the bushes. It keeps alone, in pairs, and on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects, sometimes small snails and worms.
Feature article
Breeding area: Dry steppe spaces on the plains and in the mountains, where it usually occupies humid places, sometimes forest glades and forest edges.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in a hole. Loose, from stems, roots, grass, moss.
Egg laying time: May - July
Eggs color and size: Whitish, greenish or reddish with dark spots, 2x1.5 cm.

Steppe pipit (Anthus richardi)

Appearance: The upper part of the body is reddish-brown with dark streaks, the underside of the body and stripes on the sides of the tail are white, on the crop and chest there is an intense buffy bloom and rare brown streaks, the "eyebrow" is whitish.
The size: Body length = 19-20cm, weight = 24-30g. C sparrow.

Features: The steppe pipit differs from other skates by its large size.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. Sings flying in circles in the air. It keeps alone, in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects.
Breeding area: Open steppe and meadow spaces.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in a hole.
Egg laying time: May June
Eggs color and size: Olive chocolate, 2x1.5 cm.

Siberian Pipit (Anthus gustavi)

Appearance: Similar to the forest pipit, but the overall tone of the upper body is black-brownish with an admixture of whitish streaks. The claw of the hind toe is long, slightly curved.
The size: From a sparrow.

Features: The Siberian pipit differs from the meadow pipit in the darker color of the upper body with whitish streaks.

Habits: It keeps on the ground, sometimes sits on trees and bushes. While singing, it rises into the air. It is kept alone and in pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Shrub tundra and deep taiga bogs.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground. The main material is thin cereal stalks.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Greenish with dark spots.

Red-throated pipit (Anthus cervina)

Appearance: The coloration of the upper body is the same as that of the forest pipit. In the male, the “eyebrow”, sides of the head, throat, goiter and chest are rusty-reddish. Females and juveniles are similar to forest and meadow pipits, but they also have a reddish tint on the throat, goiter and chest.
The size: Body length = 16-18cm, weight = 18-22g. Less sparrow.

Features: The red-throated pipit in spring differs from other skates in reddish tones in the coloration of the underside of the body.

Habits: Keeps on the ground. It keeps in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects.
Breeding area: Humpy, humid tundra.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in a hole.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: Bluish or olive gray with dark spots, 2x1.5 cm.

Mountain pipit (Anthus spinoletta)

Appearance: The top of the head and upper tail are gray, the back is brown-gray, the wings and tail are brown, the belly and stripes on the sides of the tail are white, the throat, goiter and chest are buffy-pinkish, sometimes sharp brownish streaks on the head and chest.
The size: Weight = 20-25g. C sparrow.

Features: The mountain pipit differs from other skates by an almost complete absence of streaks in color and a pinkish underside of the body.

Habits: Sings on the ground and in the air. It keeps in pairs, on the flight - in flocks.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Food: Insects.
Feature article
Breeding area: Subalpine and alpine meadows, mountain tundra.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground.
Egg laying time: April - July
Eggs color and size: Grayish or greenish with blackish specks, 2x1.5 cm.

Spotted pipit (Anthus hodgsoni)

Appearance: It looks like a forest pipit, but on the upper side it has a shade of greenish-olive.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: In the field, it is practically indistinguishable from forest, meadow and Siberian pipits. Close to meadow and Siberian it differs in a short claw of the hind toe, from forest toe in a brighter greenish color of the upper side of the body.

Habits: Sings in the same way as the forest horse. It feeds on the ground.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Mountainhorse - Anthus spinoletta

Mountainhorse - Anthus spinoletta

The dorsal side is brownish-gray, almost without streaks, the top of the head and upper tail are somewhat lighter.

The ventral side is buffy, brighter on the chest, in females with small streaks. The legs are black.

Breeds in the highlands of the Caucasus and South Siberia. On the northern coast of the Kola Peninsula, there are very dark birds with a dark green tint of the top and large black streaks on the chest, which many zoologists consider to be an independent species of the rocky horse - Anthus littoralis. The song is like that of a meadow horse (446), but with a metallic tinge, a cry - a quiet "cit".

Ⓘ Mountain horse

The mountain pipit or coastal pipit is a small passerine bird that lives in the mountains of southern Europe and temperate southern Asia up to China. Mountainhorses migrate short distances over humid lowlands such as swamps or flooded fields. Some birds migrate north to England for the winter, taking advantage of the warm oceanic climate.

Like many other skates, this species is also invisible on the ground, mostly brown at the top and striped fawn underneath.They have dark legs, white tail feathers and an elongated dark beak. In the summer, they change the color of their feathers: they become pinkish chest, gray head and pale eyebrows. Body length 16.5 cm. Migratory bird.

In summer, the rock ridge has a very similar plumage, but they can be distinguished by the sounds of singing. The voice is a quiet "cit-cit" and a quiet song. Also, the mountain ridge is much smaller than the rock ridge. The mountain pipit and the American pipit are not found in the same places, with the exception of a small area in Central Asia.

The mountain pipit is insectivorous. The singing is similar to the singing of a rock ridge, but consists of about 5 blocks, consisting of about 6 sounds each; the rock ridge has fewer blocks, but they are longer.

The mountain pipit is found in two very different areas:

  • in the tundra and adjoining alpine meadows
  • on rocky sea coasts

In the mountains, the range of mountain horses extends to the very permafrost zone.

Creates nests deep in cover. The female lays 4-5 eggs in April-May and incubates them for 14-15 days. Both parents feed the chicks. Difficult to define in nature. It differs from other skates by the almost complete absence of streaks in color.

Svirstun gorny

Photo © Francesco Veronesi / Flickr. Aosta Valley, Italy. CC BY-SA 2.0

Registrations since 2000:

Grodno region - Grodno district

Family Wagtail - Motacillidae

In Belarus, it is a very rare, single wintering species. The 1st registration of the species in Belarus took place in February 2009 at the treatment ponds of JSC "Grodno Azot", village Berezhany, Grodno district, Grodno region, 2nd registration - in the same place in January 2010, 3- I happened in the same place 04.02-10.02.2012.

Noticeably larger than meadow pipit, generally grayish-brown in color. Body weight 18.5-27 g, body length 16-17.5 cm, wingspan 24-29 cm. Wing length of males 9-9.5 cm, females 8-9 cm. Top of the head and neck is ash-gray with unclear spots, there is a creamy white supraorbital stripe. The back is brownish with dark longitudinal spots, the upper tail is without spots. The ventral side of the body is whitish, the throat, chest and sides of the chest are dirty-gray-reddish. On the throat there are indistinct, and on the sides of the body there are clearer brown spots. Flight feathers are dark brown. The beak is black, the legs are dark brown (toes are almost black), the eyes are black-brown. There is apparently no sexual dimorphism. In winter plumage, the entire dorsal side is dark brown with darker centers of feathers. The ventral side of the body is more strongly stained. Juveniles have a slightly more developed spotting and lighter legs.

Voice: gentle "cit-cit".

Prefers mountain crooked forest, interrupted by swampy meadows.

It is widespread in the mountainous regions of Europe and Asia, outside of which it is rare and accidental. The closest nesting places of this bird to Belarus are the Carpathians and the Caucasus, where it nests in the subalpine and alpine zones of the mountains at altitudes from 600 to 2500 m.

The nest is placed on the ground and is quite large

the structure (larger than that of a forest horse), made of grass and moss, lined with thinner grass and often hair. A full clutch contains 4-5 eggs, often 6. Dimensions: 21 x 16 mm. The color of the eggs is grayish,

grayish-green or greenish with a strong blackish spotting, especially dense at the blunt end of the egg. Clutches can be found already at the end of April, but more often in May, there are clutches in June and even in the first half of July. Probably two clutches a year. Apparently, one female incubates, duration of incubation is 14-15 days, chicks leave the nest not being able to fly yet.

It feeds on small insects, small molluscs, spiders, and seeds during migrations.

Photo © Dûrzan cîrano / Wikimedia Commons. Bismil, Turkey. CC BY-SA 3.0

1. Nikiforov M. E., Samusenko I. E. "Finds and encounters of birds approved by the Belarusian Ornithological and Faunistic Commission on January 12, 2011" / Subbuteo 2014, volume 11 pp. 82-83

2. Nikiforov M. E., Samusenko I. E. "Finds and encounters of birds, approved by the Belarusian Ornithological and Faunistic Commission on January 16, 2013" / Subbuteo 2014, volume 11 pp. 84-90

3. Gladkov N. A. "Mountain horse Anthus spinoletta L." / Birds of the Soviet Union. vol. 5. Moscow, 1954, p. 683-693

4. Grichik V. V., Burko L. D. "Animal world of Belarus. Vertebrates: study guide" Minsk, 2013. -399 p.

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