Bird Families

Coot, spinning top, blackbird warbler and others

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Birds are smaller in size than a sparrow. The plumage of the dorsal side of most species is reddish-brown, the ventral is ocher-white. The tail is tapered at the end.

Migratory birds. The nest is a basket between the stems of herbs. In clutch there are 4-6 light eggs with dark spots. The voice of the warblers is a sharp "check-check" and a song with imitation of the voices of other birds. In crickets, the song resembles a popping sound.

In the field, crickets and warblers differ little in appearance and better in singing.

343. Nightingale Cricket - Locustella luscinioides

343. Nightingale cricket - Locustella luscinioides.


343. Nightingale Cricket - Locustella luscinioides

Inhabits the southern half of the European part of the USSR, the south of Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and the plains of Central Asia. The song is the growing sounds of "zirrrrr."

344. River Cricket - Locustella fluviatilis

344. River cricket - Locustella fluviatilis.


344. River Cricket - Locustella fluviatilis

Breeds in the European part of the USSR, Western Siberia, Western Kazakhstan. The song resembles the chirping of a grasshopper - "zer-zer-zer-zer."

345. Song Cricket - Locustella certhiola

345. Song Cricket - Locustella certhiola.


345. Song Cricket - Locustella certhiola

Inhabits the forest zone of Siberia up to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and Primorsky Krai. The song is a set of sonorous whistles.

346. Cricket - Locustella naevia

346. Cricket - Locustella naevia.


346. Cricket - Locustella naevia

Breeds in the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, the south of Western Siberia, Kazakhstan. The song is very long and even - "zi-zizizizizi-zizi".

347. Spotted Cricket - Locustella lanceolata

347. Spotted cricket - Locustella lanceolata.


347. Spotted Cricket - Locustella lanceolata

Inhabits the taiga zone of Siberia from Ob to Kamchatka and Primorsky Krai. The song is long, reminiscent of the chirping of a grasshopper.

348. Badger - Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

348. Badger - Acrocephalus schoenobaenus.


348. Badger - Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

Breeds in the European part of the USSR and Siberia east to the Yenisei.

349. Indian Warbler - Acrocephalus agricola

349. Indian Warbler - Acrocephalus agricola.


349. Indian Warbler - Acrocephalus agricola

Inhabits the steppes of the southern part of the country from the lower reaches of the Danube to the lower reaches of the Kuban, the steppes of Southwestern Siberia and Kazakhstan.

350. Garden Warbler - Acrocephalus dumetorum

350. Garden warbler - Acrocephalus dumetorum.


350. Garden Warbler - Acrocephalus dumetorum

Inhabits the forest zone of the European part of the USSR and Siberia east to the upper reaches of the Lena.

351. Marsh warbler - Acrocephalus palustris

351. Marsh warbler - Acrocephalus palustris.


351. Marsh warbler - Acrocephalus palustris

Breeds in the European part of the USSR eastward to the Urals.

352. Reed Warbler - Acrocephalus scirpaceus

352. Reed warbler - Acrocephalus scirpaceus.


352. Reed Warbler - Acrocephalus scirpaceus

Inhabits the European part of the USSR from Estonia to the Crimea, Transcaucasia, South Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan.

353. Blackbird Warbler - Acrocephalus arundinaceus

353. Blackbird Warbler - Acrocephalus arundinaceus.


353. Blackbird Warbler - Acrocephalus arundinaceus

The size of a starling. Breeds in the European part of the USSR, Western Siberia, south of Eastern Siberia.

354. Thick-billed Warbler - Phragmaticola aedon

354. Thick-billed warbler - Phragmaticola aedon.


354. Thick-billed Warbler - Phragmaticola aedon

Slightly smaller than a starling. Inhabits the southern regions of Siberia and the Far East.

355. Hippolais icterina

355. Mixing - Hippolais icterina.


355. Hippolais icterina

Slightly smaller than a sparrow. The dorsal side is greenish, the ventral side is yellowish, above the eye is a yellow eyebrow.

Migrant. Inhabits deciduous and mixed plantations and gardens of the southern half of the forest zone and forest-steppe from the western borders of the USSR to Novosibirsk. Nest is built on a tree. In clutch there are 4-6 pinkish eggs with black spots. The voice is a cry and a song that imitates the singing of other birds. It is rather difficult to determine by its appearance.

356. Chat - Hippolais caligata

356. Chat - Hippolais caligata.


356. Chat - Hippolais caligata

Much smaller than a sparrow. The top of the body is brownish-gray, the bottom is whitish.

Migrant. Inhabits thickets of bushes from Smolensk region eastward to Angara. Nest is built on the ground and in bushes. In clutch there are 4-6 pinkish eggs with black spots. The voice is a sharp cry and the song is a set of rattles.

It is rather difficult to determine by its appearance.

Description

Marsh warbler is approximately 13 cm long, wingspan is 17 to 21 cm. Body weight is approximately 11 to 14 grams.The marsh warbler is almost indistinguishable from the reed warbler. The upper side is brown-gray and the lower is yellowish-white. The bird has a whitish throat and a sharp beak. Male and female have the same color. Marsh warbler deftly moves in dense vegetation and can imitate several voices of other bird species. Her singing is very loud, similar to that of a reed warbler. Life expectancy is 9 years.

Marsh warbler

Acrocephalus palustris (Bechstein, 1798). The medium-sized warbler, in body proportions, size and color, is very similar to the reed and garden warbler, but differs in the wing formula and also in small paws. Sometimes the plumage on the forehead is slightly bulging, which makes it look slightly taller than usual in warblers. The manner of moving along vertical herbaceous plants, singing while sitting on them, and flying shortly over the very tops of grasses (wormwood, nettles, reeds) - like in other warblers.

VIEW PAGE. More about marsh warbler.

SIZE... Body length 120-145 mm. Wingspan 180-210 mm. Wing 61-68 mm. The tail is 53-56 mm. Shank 21-22.5 mm. Beak from the front edge of the nostril 8.1-9.4 mm. Weight 11-16 g.

PAINTING. Adults in a wedding dress dorsal side from olive-brown to olive-gray. The uppertail is lighter than the back, there is no reddish tint on the lower back. Clay-colored eyebrow is poorly visible. Flight feathers and tail feathers are brownish, with olive-brown edges of outer webs and grayish tips. The ventral side, axillary and underwing coverts are clay-gray, the throat and middle of the belly are whitish. In summer the upper side is grayish-brown, without an olive tint, the underside is whiter. In a fresh autumn feather the color of the top has a rusty-yellowish tones, on the underside there is a more intense ocher bloom. Beak brown mandible pale, yellowish. Legs gray, rainbow brown. Young in the first autumn outfit reddish, which is very similar to the reed warbler. In the nesting plumage, the dorsal side is reddish-brown, the ventral side with a strongly developed reddish tinge. Chick naked, no fluff.

On close examination, it differs from the garden warbler in that its light eyebrow is less pronounced (visible only in front of the eye), and the light ring around the eye is better, the beak is slightly shorter. The wing is relatively longer and sharper than that of the garden warbler, the distance between the wing tip and the apices of the secondary flight feathers is increased, the folded wings protrude far back and cover the base of the tail. On tertiary, i.e. the inner, shortest flight feathers have light edges, contrasting with the darker color of these feathers, which, in turn, are darker than the rest of the wing and plumage of the back; in birds with worn plumage, they are erased to varying degrees.

The coloration of tertiary flight feathers distinguishes it from all related species. The differences from the garden warbler are described above. Differences from the reed and Indian warblers, which in the nesting period primarily inhabit the thickets of near-water vegetation (reeds and others), are as follows. The wing is the same relatively long and pointed, as in the reed warbler, but the general coloration of the upper part of the body is not reddish, especially on the upper tail, and on the sides, unlike the reed warbler, there is no reddish bloom, the legs of the marsh warbler are lighter. It differs from the Indian warbler by the color of the head - a weakly expressed eyebrow, a cap that practically does not differ in color from the color of the back, and a beak without darkening at the top, as well as the absence of a reddish tint on the loin, contrasting with the color of the feathers of the back.

VOTE... The song is very diverse and beautiful, contains many signals and elements adopted from other types. It differs from the song of the garden reed warbler by the fusion of elements and haste; there is no insertion “ilelyu-chekchek” characteristic of the garden reed warbler.Most of all it is similar to the song of the reed warbler, but loud and noticeable. It has no definite duration and during the hours of the greatest current activity - at dawn and at night - it can sound without pauses for many minutes. During the day, the birds sing more sluggishly and with more frequent pauses. They are not as shy and secretive when singing as many other warblers. By the height of summer, they sing little or completely silent at night, the activity of daytime singing also decreases, for the longest time (until mid-July) it can be heard at dawn. Alarm signals - crackling or screeching "chrrrrr", "cheerrr", "black", "check". The singing male has a yellow mouth.

BIOTOPE... The main requirement of this species for habitat is the presence of thickets of shrubs, both near water bodies, and far from them. But they always settle in more or less humid places, with dense forbs. They prefer open (treeless) terrain - meadows, grassy swamps, fields with overgrown boundaries, and if the forest, then very sparse or clearings and edges. Very often, several pairs nest only 10-30 m apart from each other in a sparse colony.

MARRIAGE BEHAVIOR... There is no current flight, with active singing, the male usually sits on a protruding branch of a bush, the beak is wide open, the throat is greatly inflated, at times the bird shakes its whole body, opens its tail and pulls it from side to side, sharply raises and lowers its wings.

NEST... They build a nest typical for warblers and hang it, braiding the walls by the vertical stems of nettles, horse sorrel, quinoa or other hard grasses or by bushes not high above the ground (rarely higher than 1 m). Nesting above water is not typical for this species. Nesting material is dry stems and leaves of cereals and other plants. In addition to thin blades of grass, the tray usually contains panicles of cereals, small roots, and often horse hair. In clutch there are 4-5 eggs, rarely - 6. Incubation begins with laying of the penultimate egg. The female sits, according to other sources - the female and the male alternately, 12-14 days. At the nest with eggs, the birds behave rather secretively and, in case of danger, try to leave it unnoticed, keep in the bushes and only give themselves away with their voice. When chicks are thrashing, parents, when a person appears, fly around him with alarming cries, spread their tail, ruffle their feathers and even snap their beak.

EGGS... The color is white, slightly bluish or greenish, spots of varying intensity and size, greenish-gray, brown, olive. They are unevenly and usually sparsely scattered over the surface of the egg, often concentrated at the blunt end. The eggs of this species are most of all similar to the eggs of the thrush warbler - as if their reduced copies. The dimensions of the eggs are 16-22 x 13-16 mm.

AREAL... Distributed in the European part of the USSR to the north to the Gulf of Finland and regions: Pskov, Kalinin, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, southern part of Kirov, to Kungur and Bashkir ASSR, to the east to the Ilek and Ural rivers. It was found in the Krasnovodsk Bay in the summer. It also nests in Crimea, throughout the Caucasus and in the Transcaucasus. Outside the USSR, it is distributed in the west. Europe from the south. Sweden and south. England to the Pyrenees, north. Italy, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, in Kurdistan and sowing. Iran.

MIGRATION... Winters in southern East Africa. Arrives in the South in the second half of April, in the northern parts of the range - throughout May.

BY

Reproduction

The marsh warbler nesting season lasts from May to July. At this time, birds build a bowl-shaped nest from grass and stalks of reeds, which is more often attached between stalks of nettles or stalks of grain crops. The female lays 3 to 5 bluish-white eggs, which are hatched alternately by both partners for 12 to 14 days. In 10-14 days after birth, young birds become independent, after a year they become sexually mature. The population in Europe is estimated to be between 1.5 and 2.0 million breeding pairs.

Nightingale broadtail

5. Nightingale broad-tailed - Cettia cetti Marm.

IN. Less sparrow. OP. The tail is wide and rounded. The top of the body is rusty-brown, the bottom is off-white, the sides are grayish-brown, the eyebrow is light. G. The song is a resounding "tsivit-tsivy-tsivy-tsvoit" Shout - loud "tsviit-tsviit-chvitz" or "tpch-ich-chi". From. It differs from warblers in a wide and rounded tail. B. Dense coastal thickets. HP. Usually a migratory bird. Mr. Nest in bushes not high above the ground or in grass. Clutch contains 3-5 brick-red eggs.

  • Field lark. Crested Lark. Lesser lark. Horned lark. Saline lark. Desert, or finch, lark. Gray lark, tab. LII
  • Kingfisher. Coastal swallow. Filamentous, or Indian, swallow. Small swallow. City swallow, or funnels. Red-lumbar swallow. Barn swallow, tab. LIII
  • Remez. Whiskered tit. Brown sutora. Meadow coinage. Black-headed coinage. Black coinage. Bluethroat, tab. LIV
  • Kamenka. Kamenka dancer. Black-footed stove. Black-necked heater. Black heater. Desert heater, tab. LV
  • White wagtail. Yellow-headed Wagtail. Yellow wagtail. Yellow-backed wagtail. Steppe ridge. Field horse. Meadow horse. Red-throated horse, tab. LVI
  • Marsh warbler. Thin-billed warbler. Swirling warbler. Warbler-badger. Broadtail nightingale, tab. LVII
  • Common cricket. Nightingale cricket. River cricket. Singing cricket. Spotted cricket, tab. LVIII
  • Lapland plantain. Field sparrow. Black-chested sparrow. House sparrow. Desert Sparrow. Saxaul sparrow. Common oatmeal. Polar bunting. Red-necked oatmeal. Reed bunting, tab. LIX
  • Black-headed Bunting. Bile oatmeal. Yankovsky's oatmeal. White-capped bunting. Oatmeal crumb, tab. LX
  • Millet. Garden oatmeal. Dubrovnik. Collar Bunting. Red-eared oatmeal, tab. LXI
  • Lentils. Dummy finch. Skototserk. Whitethroat warbler. Gray warbler. Desert Warbler, tab. LXII
  • How to use the qualifier

An excerpt characterizing the Marsh warbler

“Three days,” Natasha said. - I think I have loved him for a hundred years. It seems to me that I have never loved anyone before him. You cannot understand this. Sonia, wait, sit down here. - Natasha hugged and kissed her. - I was told that it happens and you heard it correctly, but now I have only experienced this love. This is not what it used to be. As soon as I saw him, I felt that he was my master, and I was his slave, and that I could not help but love him. Yes, a slave! What he tells me, I will do. You don't understand this. What am I supposed to do? What am I to do, Sonya? - Natasha said with a happy and frightened face. “But think about what you’re doing,” Sonya said, “I cannot leave it like that. These secret letters ... How could you allow him to do this? She said with horror and disgust, which she could hardly hide. “I told you,” Natasha answered, “that I have no will, how you don’t understand this: I love him! “So I won't allow it to happen, I’ll tell you,” Sonya cried out with tears bursting out. - What are you, for God's sake ... If you tell me, you are my enemy, - Natasha spoke up. - You want my misfortune, you want us to be torn apart ... Seeing this fear of Natasha, Sonya cried with tears of shame and pity for her friend. - But what happened between you? She asked. - What did he tell you? Why doesn't he go to the house? Natasha did not answer her question. “For God's sake, Sonya, don’t tell anyone, don’t torture me,” Natasha begged. - You remember that you cannot interfere in such matters. I told you ... - But why these secrets! Why doesn't he go to the house? - asked Sonya. - Why is he not looking for your hand directly? After all, Prince Andrew gave you complete freedom, if so, but I do not believe it. Natasha, did you think what secret reasons could be? Natasha looked at Sonya with surprised eyes. Apparently, for the first time this question presented itself to her and she did not know how to answer it. - What are the reasons, I do not know. But there are reasons! Sonya sighed and shook her head in disbelief.“If there were reasons…” she began. But Natasha, guessing her doubt, interrupted her in fright. - Sonya, you can't doubt him, you can't, you can't, do you understand? She shouted. - Does he love you? - Does she love? Natasha repeated with a smile of regret for her friend's lack of understanding. - You read the letter, did you see it?

REPORT: The Warbler Passion, or How the Life of the Sporovskiye Marshes is Changing

The Sporovsky lowland swamp massif, located on the territory of four districts of the Brest region, is one of the largest habitats of the globally endangered bird species - the aquatic warbler. It is no coincidence that the Sporovsky biological reserve was the first in Belarus to receive the international status of protection of the Ramsar site. Tourists from all over the world come here, the national championship in manual haymaking is held here annually, and international technical assistance projects are being implemented. This year, the reserve has become a participant in another such project - "Sustainable management of forest and wetland ecosystems to achieve multipurpose benefits" ("Wetlands"). In this regard, the project managers organized a press tour for the journalists, which was also joined by the correspondents of BelTA.

The swirling warbler is the rarest songbird in Europe. Her nesting sites have been preserved in Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Germany. About 43% of the world population of this bird nests in our country, including in the Sporovsky reserve - about 9%, in the neighboring republican landscape reserve "Zvanets" - about 27%. This is why these internationally significant reserves have been selected as project areas for Wetlands, a project funded by the Global Environment Facility and implemented by the United Nations Development Program in partnership with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection.

“These territories are unique, as are the species that live here. These are the aquatic warbler, great spotted eagle, meadow pipit, sandpipers (great snipe and great bodew), short-eared owl, corncrake, curlew. There are also a huge number of insects here. In fact, the protection of these habitats is the protection of about 40 protected species for Belarus, which live practically only here. Many of them are globally threatened, their number is decreasing due to overgrowth of swamps, economic activities. These are the types of activities that the project aims at. Success will be assessed by the results of improving the population of species, ”explains Maxim Koloskov, an employee of the Scientific and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources.

The problem of overgrowing of unique floodplain bogs in "Sporovsky" has been actively tried to solve for the last ten years. Under international technical assistance projects, equipment was purchased that could work in the swamp. “Small growth is mowed with rotary mowers. What is possible, we take it for processing, we just mulch the rest and leave it in the swamp. We have already worked out three options for using this biomass - as hay, bedding for livestock and processing into vermicompost. There is no question of making a profit here: our task is to make the project self-sufficient, ”says the director of the reserve Vadim Protasevich. This year in "Sporovskiy" it is planned to mow almost 1,000 hectares of swamps. Although such care, according to the head, requires about 9 thousand hectares. To organize a complete technological chain for mowing and using the vegetative biomass of bogs under the Wetlands project, it is planned to complete the equipment fleet. 7 additional jobs will be created in Sporovskiy.

Measures to manage the aquatic warbler population will also be implemented in the Zvanets Wildlife Refuge. Under the European Union Life program, which is co-financed by the Vetlands project, in May of this year, 50 aquatic warbler chicks were moved from here to the Lithuanian reserve “Zhuvintas” for the first time.“The translocation went well: the chicks moved, took root there and have already been released into their natural habitats,” says Vitaly Shkapich, director of the reserve. - We will wait for the results next spring. If the experience is successful, it can be repeated. "

The route of the press tour runs along the picturesque places of the Yaselda river floodplain. A good quality road leads to the Vysokoye village, which was considered to be rather recently dying out. Its construction began four years ago with funds from the district budget. During this time, about 20 km of the track have been asphalted. Now road builders are working on the last section of the gravel road, 2.5 km long. In the Highest, changes are also evident, as they say. Natural gas and internet have come to the village. The once empty houses have acquired a well-groomed appearance, many have satellite dishes. Ivan Kragel, Chairman of the Striginsky Village Council, sees a direct link between increasing the manageability of a specially protected natural area and the socio-economic development of this unique corner in the Berezovsky district.

“Recently, all of the real estate has been sold out. If someone keeps an uninhabited house, then in order to sell it better, but in general there are no vacant ones. In recent years, three new agricultural estates have appeared - now there are five of them on the territory of the village council. Another one may be created soon. Recently, a native of these places, and now a resident of Austria, visited his small homeland. He and his wife bought two adjacent houses, formalized the land, and made a project for an agricultural estate. They plan to return here and create a family business, - says the head of the village council. - The interest of the local population is growing, subsidiary farming is being revived. Young families acquire cows and sheep. Some have apiaries. At least five beekeepers, including two in Vysokoe, are doing business on an industrial scale. "

One of the new agricultural estates is Zapovednoye, the owners of which have kindly provided their base for the participants of the press tour. Former townspeople Valentina and Ivan Karpuk, upon retirement, left their daughter their apartment in Beloozersk, and they themselves moved to their parental home. “The idea of ​​the farmhouse was suggested by the people themselves: whoever came, said what a good place,” says Ivan Stepanovich. Much, if not all, here is made by his hands. While the owners are positioning "Zapovednoye" as a weekend getaway. But the plans include the construction of a guest house, where tourists will be able to stay for more than one day.

The number of Sporovskiy visitors is growing steadily. If last year 2.7 thousand organized tourists visited the reserve, then since the beginning of this year - more than 3 thousand. Their influx, among other things, is facilitated by the relaxation of the visa regime. “Every year we had up to 250 foreigners per season. This year, more than 300 people have already visited. They come mainly from Western Europe - Great Britain, France, Germany. This year there were birdwatchers from Canada and Australia. The geography is expanding, and this is thanks to the visa-free regime, ”the director of the reserve notes.

There is even a Sporovsky fan club in Scotland. It so happened that for a group of tourists from the city of Inverness in the hotel in the regional center there were not enough places. The guests were settled in the ecological and educational center of the reserve, and in the evening everyone went to the swamp to listen to the aquatic warbler. “We didn't sleep until morning. The next year, five groups from there have already visited the reserve. That is, each of the first five tourists brought their own group. And now every year two or three groups come from them, ”smiles Vadim Protasevich.

Unfortunately, we were not able to see the fidgety warbler and hear her singing - at the end of August she flies away for the winter. On the way to Africa, this small bird, the size of which does not exceed 13 cm, and the weight of a teaspoon of sugar, overcomes about 6 thousand km. We will wait for her return in May.

Photo by Vadim YAKUBENK,

Follow us on

Yandex Zen, Telegram and Viber!

Tags:
Brest region nature birds report

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send