Nectar and spiderhunters make up a family Nectariniidae, very small passerine birds. There are 132 varieties in 15 genera. The family is distributed throughout Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and just reaches northern Australia. Most sunbirds feed mainly on nectar, but also take insects and spiders, especially feeding the young. The flower tubes that bar access to the nectar because of their shape are simply pierced at the base near the nectaries. The fruit is also part of the diet of some species. Their flight is fast and straight on their short wings.
sunbirds have copies in two very distantly related groups: the hummingbirds of the Americas and the honeyeaters of Australia. The similarities are due to the convergent development caused by the nectar-feeding lifestyle. Some species of sunbird may take nectar while hovering like a hummingbird, but they usually perch to feed.
The family ranges in size from a 5 gram black-bellied sunflower to a spectacled spiderhunter at about 45 grams. Like hummingbirds, sunbirds are highly sexually dimorphic, with males usually brilliantly plumaged in iridescent colors. In addition to this, the tails of many species are longer in males, and in general males are larger. Sunbirds have long, thin downward curved bills and tubular, brush-tipped tongues, both adaptations to their nectar delivery. spiderhunters, kind Arachnotheraare different in appearance from other family members. They are generally larger than other sunbirds with gray brown plumage, which is the same for both sexes, and long, downwardly curved beaks.
In metabolic behavior similar to that of the Andean hummingbirds, species of sunbirds that live at high altitudes or latitudes will go into lethargy, roosting at night, lowering their body temperature and entering a state of low activity and responsiveness.
The Seychelles Sunbird is a small songbird from the family of Sunbirds. Endemic to the Seychelles. The specific Latin name was given in honor of the French traveler Jean-Jacques Dussumier.
The Seychelles sunbird inhabits almost all the mountainous islands within the Seychelles. It belongs to the endemic bird species of the Seychelles, which have been able to best adapt to the changing conditions of living space. The living space encompasses forests, gardens, bush and mangroves from sea level up to 900 m above sea level.
The bird nests all year round, more often, however, in September and October. In a pear-shaped nest, completely protected from cats and rats, which usually hangs at the end of a branch, a single egg is laid. The nest is constructed of grass and moss tied together with a web.
Distribution and habitat
Nectarians are a tropical family of the Old World, with representatives in Africa, Asia and Australasia. In Africa, they are found mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, but are also distributed in Egypt.In Asia, the group occurs along the coasts of the Red Sea as far north as Israel, with a gap in their distribution to Iran, from where the group occurs continuously to southern China and Indonesia. In Australasia, the family takes place in New Guinea, northern eastern Australia, and the Solomon Islands. They are not usually found on oceanic islands, with the exception of the Seychelles. The largest variety of species is found in Africa, where the group probably originated. Most species are sessile or short distance seasonal migrants. Nectarians occur throughout the entire family range, whereas spiderhunters are restricted to Asia.
Nectars and spiderhunters occupy a wide range of habitats, with most species found in the primary rainforest, but other habitats used by the family including disturbed secondary forest, open woodland, open bush and savannah, coastal shrub and alpine forest. Some species have readily adapted to human altered landscapes, such as plantations, gardens, and arable land. Many species are able to occupy a wide range of habitats from sea level to 4,900 m.
Behavior and ecology
Nectarians are active diurnal birds that usually occur in pairs or sometimes in small family groups. Several species sometimes congregate in larger groups, and the sunbird will join other birds to mob potential predators, although the sunbirds will aggressively target other species as well, even if they are not predators, defending their territories.
Relationships with people
Overall, the family fared better than many others, with only seven species believed to be endangered. Most of the species are quite resistant to changes in habitat, and while the lovable family is not looking for a trade in the cagebird as they have what is considered an unpleasant song and sly to support. Nectarians are considered attractive birds and readily enter gardens where flowering plants are planted to attract them. There are several negative interactions, for example the scarlet-breasted sunbird is considered a pest in cocoa plantations as it spreads parasitic mistletoe.