Endangered species IUCN 3.1
: [www.iucnredlist.org/details/106001572 106001572]
) Is a bird of the parrot family.
An excerpt characterizing the Solar Paradise
- To Petersburg? Go? Okay, yes, go. But can I come to you tomorrow? The next day Pierre came to say goodbye. Natasha was less lively than in the old days, but on that day, sometimes looking into her eyes, Pierre felt that he was disappearing, that neither he nor she was no longer there, but there was one feeling of happiness. “Really? No, it can't be, ”he said to himself with every look, gesture, word that filled his soul with joy. When, saying goodbye to her, he took her thin, thin hand, he involuntarily held it in his own for a little longer. “Could it be this hand, this face, these eyes, all this treasure of feminine charm that is alien to me, will it all be forever mine, habitual, the same as I am for myself? No, It is Immpossible. “Farewell, Count,” she told him loudly. “I will very much wait for you,” she added in a whisper. And these simple words, the look and expression on the face that accompanied them, for two months were the subject of inexhaustible memories, explanations and happy dreams of Pierre. “I will very much wait for you ... Yes, yes, how did she say? Yes, I will very much wait for you. Oh, how happy I am! What is it, how happy I am! " - Pierre said to himself. In Pierre's soul nothing now happened like what had happened in her under similar circumstances during his matchmaking with Helene. He did not repeat, as then, with painful shame of the words he said, he did not say to himself: "Oh, why did I not say this, and why, why did I say then je vous aime?" [I love you] Now, on the contrary, every word of her, his own, he repeated in his imagination with all the details of his face, smile and did not want to subtract or add anything: he only wanted to repeat it. Doubt whether what he had undertaken was good or bad — now there was no shadow. Only one terrible doubt sometimes crossed his mind. Isn't it all in a dream? Wasn't Princess Marya mistaken? Am I too proud and arrogant? I believe, and suddenly, what should happen, Princess Marya will tell her, and she will smile and answer: “How strange! He was probably wrong. Doesn't he know that he is a man, just a man, and me. I am completely different, higher. "
Description and appearance
Extraordinarily funny and amusing pets are practically devoid of flaws. Friendly, inquisitive and completely non-conflicting individuals have been bribing breeders for more than a dozen years. Affectionate and attentive birds always find time for humans, but when communicating with all family members, they choose a pet for themselves. Often, favorites become the subject of obsessive love and excessive attention. And hence the next nickname aratting - stuck. But the award is waiting for its winner!
The one whom the parrot's gaze fell on very often witnesses incendiary tropical dances and tricks. Yes, yes, you heard exactly the acrobatic movements to the music. The birds deftly juggle, lie on their backs and dance, causing genuine bursts of laughter and cheerful mood. Very mobile and musically gifted representatives enthusiastically listen to music and not only. Subsequently, what he heard is reproduced with incredible virtuosity.
Intellectually gifted parrots are virtuosos in everything. With regular exercise, animals reproduce the intonation of human speech, various sounds of the surrounding world. They do it, of course, not as clearly as the macaw, but with constant pleasure. The vocabulary is small. During life, remember only from two to three dozen words. But they read whole quatrains.Another characteristic feature of the feathered one is the fact that after some time the old, long-learned expressions of the individual are replaced with new ones.
Extraordinary possibilities are complemented by beautiful and bright plumage. It seems that the entire color palette of the natural world has adorned the small body of the animal. Iridescent colors of deep green, red, yellow, blue are present both in the exact version and in their shades and nuances. Peripheral rings are an invariable addition to the feathered costume. The wedge-shaped, stepped tail does not exceed the size of the body.
The beak, like all representatives of parrots, is strong and powerful. In arating, it is thick, but short. However, even with a modest size, it is capable of inflicting unprecedented damage to human dwellings. To prevent the bird's pernicious tendencies, it is recommended to supply the inhabitant with fresh tree branches daily. And then the parrot will direct all the irrepressible potential in the right direction. It will not be superfluous to distract the feathered one with puzzles. Hunters for riddles and unexplored secrets of individuals with curiosity drip with toys and puzzles. All this serves as an important aspect of education.
Bird sizes vary depending on the species:
- generally from 16 to 40 cm,
- weight is only 100 - 150 g.,
Those who are naturally agreeable can also demonstrate obstinacy and discontent. The result will be a loud and harsh voice, although parrots communicate among themselves in a cooing tone.
Description and photo
There are two subspecies of these parrots: the parrot parrot and the western black-capped parrot. Their color is similar, but the belly of the western one has a pure white color, without yellowness, and the feathers on the legs and sides are yellow.
Did you know?Black-headed white-bellied parrots live in captivity for up to 20 years.
Appearance and dimensions
The body of an adult individual reaches a length of 24 centimeters, and the tail is 6 centimeters. The birds weigh about 200 grams. They have an original color: from the forehead to the back of the head - black, the frenum and the area around the eyes - green.
The face and throat are painted bright orange or yellow. Feathers on the neck are brown-orange. There are bright green feathers on the back, wings and outer side of the tail. The chest and abdomen are white or beige. The shins, thighs, flanks and inner side of the tail are orange. The beak of these birds is black-gray, the iris of the eyes is orange, and the paws are gray.
You will be interested to know what kind of vision the parrots have.
Habitat, habitat, lifestyle
These birds live in the northern part of Brazil, in the northeast of Peru, in Guyana, as well as in Ecuador and Colombia. They choose a humid tropical forest for life, they live far from people.
In their natural habitat, the birds in question eat wild plant seeds, nuts and fruits. Sometimes they gather in flocks and fly to corn plantations. They live in pairs or groups of families. They gather in flocks only for feeding. Periods of high activity occur at dawn and evening. They have a loud and unpleasant voice, their singing can be heard from afar. m
Caik females lay an average of 4 eggs, which incubate for 26 days. The female takes care of the chicks up to 2 months, after which they fly out of the nest and begin an independent life.
Important!Females practically do not differ from males of caiks in appearance. Gender can only be determined using DNA analysis.
The name black-headed white-bellied caik (Latin Pionites melanocephala melanocephala or the second variant of Pionites melanocephalus) clearly describes its color - black forehead, crown and back of the head and white breast. Cheeks, throat, thighs, undertail - bright yellow-orange color. Wings, back and tail are green. The average weight is 130-170 grams, the average length is 23-25 cm. Females and males are similar to each other - sex can only be determined by DNA analysis. Chicks from an adult can be distinguished by the color of the iris, beak and breast up to about one year, after the differences disappear.In chicks, the iris gradually changes, first dark, then brown, then brown-red, the beak is light and darkens with age, they do not have green feathers under the eyes, the color of the breast changes from yellowish-gray to white. In an adult bird, the iris of the eye is reddish-red, a black beak, a breast with white feathers and green feathers are present under the eyes.
In addition to the nominal subspecies, it is distinguished by a subspecies - Pionites melanocephala pallidus, which has some differences in color (the breast is pure white, without a yellow tint).
The maximum recorded lifespan of the black-headed caik is 22.6 years. These data are cited by the International Zoo Yearbook. Some sources indicate life expectancy up to 30 years, but documentary evidence is not provided there.
This is a very energetic winged pet, so it needs a large and spacious trellis house. Some owners prefer to buy a Grays cage, which are significantly larger than the Kaik, to give their pet the maximum amount of space. However, there is no single correct standard for cell size. General recommendation - the pet should be able to open its wings and flap them without touching toys, perches and walls. It is even better when it will be possible to jump between the perches, helping the wings (by flapping). The ATOL cattery on its website recommends a model of 80 * 40 * 60 cm as the minimum size of a cage for a pair of parrots.
They have limited abilities to imitate human speech, but they are good at copying various sounds (alarms, alarms, household appliances, and others). In addition, these intelligent birds are able to quickly learn various tricks. Due to their active nature, it is advised to offer them more toys.
Meals should include dry grain mixture - JR Farm food, Prestige series from Versele-laga, Padovan, Fiory is usually recommended. In addition to grains, it is necessary to give greens, twigs, fruits, vegetables, cereals.
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Caring for chicks
Sun aratins breed well in captivity, of course, if they have the necessary conditions for this. If you want to acquire very young birds that will grow and develop in front of your eyes, remember: the chick must be at least 3-4 months old. Until this age, parrots live with their parents and do not differ in independence.
Sun arata chicks differ from adult parrots in color, which is dominated by green, and there are much more gray spots. Over time, the bird turns sunny yellow.
In a room with parrots, it is advisable to humidify the air using a special apparatus. Solar baths feel comfortable at a temperature of about 22 ° C. While the birds are very small, this is especially important.
If you take up the education of small parrots, perhaps they will learn to talk. In any case, the solar aratings are endowed with such an ability. In addition, they have excellent hearing, thanks to which they can very accurately reproduce the melodies they like.
Remember, this type of parrot (sun parakeet) is distinguished by its loyalty and friendliness. A chick raised from a young age will be very attached to you all its life.
Many owners note that the chicks of the sun parakeet are inquisitive, albeit cautious. It's interesting to watch them. To diversify the bird life, equip the cage with toys and a small mirror.
The parakeet prefers to live in multi-tiered forests, in which there is a sufficient amount of plant food. Today, all species of this bright representative of birds can be found in South and Central America. In natural conditions, birds live no more than 15 years. Due to their small size and extremely noticeable coloration, arata are attacked by various predators.In recent decades, people have begun to kill these birds as well. This is due to the love of "flying flowers" for crops, especially corn. Diseases, natural disasters and low yields also become the cause of death of individuals.
At home, bright parrots can live up to 30 years. The most common pet, inseparable from the owner, becomes a solar carapace. With proper care, proper nutrition and the ability to fly, they feel comfortable even in small apartments. It is not difficult to keep "flying flowers", but they need to be paid a lot of attention. With a lack of it, birds can be demanding and emit loud, persistent trills.
Memo for a beginner
The sun aratinga is a southern bird accustomed to warmth. Take care of the proper temperature regime.
In natural nature, this parrot has the ability to fly for pleasure. The cage may not have enough room for physical activity.
Exotic content is not a cheap pleasure. Calculate in advance whether you can afford the purchase of special feed and everything necessary to ensure the life of the bird.
The most important thing you will face is a loud, expressive voice. Get ready for this! If you love peace and quiet, a more silent pet may be more suitable for you.
Lifestyle and character
In the forests of South and Central America, the arating parrot does not live alone. This bird prefers to stray with congeners in numerous flocks and get food by joint efforts. All individuals are active, so they spend most of their lives in motion. The formation of couples occurs directly during the mating season.
Due to their bright plumage, the arating are forced to hide from various dangers in the dense foliage of trees. The birds also have to hide from farmers, enraged by attempts on their crops, in the forests. At home, "flying flowers" are more contact. An abundance of food and a solitary life force them to change their behavior and treat people like members of their pack. As a rule, the arating parrot shows strong affection for the person who spends more time talking with him and feeding him.
In natural conditions, they chose the central and southern parts of America. They inhabit dense multi-tiered forests, where you can safely hide from the heat and uninvited predatory visitors. Aratin parrots live in flocks, and during the nesting period they exist in pairs. Bird unions are renowned for their longevity and durability. Cozy nests are arranged in crevices and hollows of trees, sometimes making them themselves.
The incubation lasts almost a month. Usually there are from 2 to 4 eggs in a clutch. Responsible parents raise their offspring until the chicks become independent and leave their parental home.
In natural conditions, bright parrots feed on fresh leaves, herbs and fruits. They also do not disdain the grain that has ripened in the fields of farmers. In captivity, it is advised to add nuts, egg mixture, white bread and mineral dressings to their everyday food. Such a diet allows you to maintain a healthy appearance of birds and the brightness of their color. Water is also extremely important for them.
The parakeet does not accept animal food, so you should not offer him such mixtures. If a curious bird wants to try products from the human table, it is better to stop such attempts. It is undesirable for these parrots to eat salt, chocolate, avocados, sugar, cold and hot foods.
Intelligence and character
Kaik is an active and energetic bird with a loud voice. She loves to play a lot, communicate with the owner, and quickly becomes tame. The parrot lends itself to training, but it does not possess the ability to imitate sounds, that is, it will not work to teach it to talk. But the bird can memorize and whistle melodies, reproduce the sounds of household appliances. Kaik does not get along well with other animals.But his character is not aggressive, he is suitable for families with children.
To breed, birds that have reached 4 years of age equip nests in tree hollows, gnawing wood with strong beaks. In the volumetric niches of arating, soft litters of dried grass, leaves and small twigs are laid. Usually a clutch consists of 3, less often of five eggs. The birds lay 1-2 eggs at intervals of several days. Females spend 24 to 28 days to incubate. The male of the sun aratinga, as well as of other species, acts as the guardian of the nest and the main breadwinner. He brings the young mother and babies the most delicious food he can find in the forest. In 2 months, the young generation grows stronger and gains enough strength to start an independent life outside the parental nest.
Breeding arata is also possible in captivity. For this, the resulting pair is transplanted into a separate aviary. Birds will feel most comfortable in a cage with a height of a little more than 2 meters, a depth of one meter and a width of 50 centimeters. The birds are laid at the end of the nest box and protected until the chicks hatch. As a rule, during the nesting season, the male parrot becomes more sociable, so it more often attracts the attention of the owner by crying. His behavior returns to normal as soon as tiny parrots are born. The male is completely absorbed in caring for children, to which he devotes most of his time.
Conditions of detention
When choosing a cage for arating, it is better to choose a metal one, rather than a wooden one. The parrot's favorite pastime is turning into chips of everything wooden that comes across him on his way. Therefore, the cage must also have strong metal rods and a metal bottom.
The size of the cage for one parrot should be at least 60 * 60 * 100 cm, so that when the wings open inside the cage, the parrot does not touch the rods with them.
The cage should be washed and cleaned regularly. This naturally also applies to drinkers with feeders.
It is best to place the drinker away from the trough, as the aratinas have a small "pig" feature - they like to throw food into the water, turning clean drinking water into an unsightly gruel.
To maintain good physical shape, the parrot must be given the opportunity to fly freely around the apartment.
Walking areas for the bird will not let her get bored and look for entertainment in the corners of the apartment.
Parakeets are very fond of swimming, so do not forget about water procedures. You can install the bath in a cage, but change the water every day so that it does not stagnate or use a regular spray bottle.
As with other parrots, for the parakeet, you should take care of good lighting, no drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
Humidity in the room is important for Aratings, it should be about 60-70%, at an air temperature of 22-25C.
Sunny parakeet - a parrot with high intelligence
This species is considered the most popular among breeders of parrots. It got its name because of its unusually juicy, rich yellow color. The head and most of the body of the bird is decorated with sun-yellow feathers. The feathered eyes are outlined by a thin pale gray rim, around which two orange spots diverge. On the lower part of the wings, the sun parrot has a lot of greenish feathers, and on the tail - a little blue. The bird acquires a permanent color only at the age of 2 years. In adolescence, the plumage can be green. The length from the head to the tip of the tail of the bird is 17 - 30 centimeters.
In addition to being incredibly fun and active, these parrots are easily trainable. Sunny Paradise can memorize a few phrases, dozens of words and tricks. It is easy and extremely interesting to train them. Since this species does not belong to parrots, "talkers", you should not count on a large vocabulary of the bird. Flying flowers have a special love for entertainment.They can make both a person and another animal a companion in games. Birds are not conflicts, so they get along well with a variety of bird species.
Criterias of choice
It is better to get a feathered friend from a specialized breeder or in a nursery. This way you will avoid buying an old, wild, sick bird. When choosing a parrot, consider the following factors:
All tail and tail feathers should be already in place. Do not believe if an unfeathered individual is passed off as a chick. Perhaps she is sick or has lost feathers from old age. It is better to purchase aratinga for successful domestication at the age of 3-6 months.
Signs of the disease
Examine the parrot. A healthy bird has a neat appearance. Feathers near the cloaca should be clean and the skin not inflamed. The pet's eyes are clear. All fingers and claws are present on the legs, there are no spots or scales.
The most contact, affectionate pets are obtained from chicks fed by hand or periodically taken out of the nest to play with a person. When you approach, the bird should not rush around the cage, scream and show aggression. The tamed parrot will stay in place or move slightly away, keeping calm.
Aratinga Yandaia (Endaya)
This variety is easily recognizable by its greenish color. Most of the plumage of a parrot is light green, and only small areas under the tail and on the head contain other colors. Around the eyes are beige and white feathers, which seem to frame almost black pupils. The beak is pink-beige. Spots of orange hues may be present on the surface of the head and wings. And the tail space of aratinga yandaia is often decorated with several yellow feathers.
In general, the nature of this species is not much different from the sun parrot. Its only feature is the strong attachment of individuals to each other. The male and the female, once united in a pair, remain in it until their death. Most of the time, individuals are together and are separated only when necessary.
An excerpt characterizing the White-Eyed Arating
“How did I find out today,” said Shinshin, who was entering the Rostovs' box. Natasha looked in the direction in which her father was looking, and saw Julie, who with pearls on her thick red neck (Natasha knew, sprinkled with powder) was sitting with a happy look, next to her mother. Behind them with a smile, with an ear bent over Julie's mouth, could be seen the smoothly combed, beautiful head of Boris. He looked at the Rostovs from under his brows and said something to his bride with a smile. "They talk about us, about me with him!" thought Natasha. “And he surely soothes his bride's jealousy of me: they needlessly worry! If only they knew how I don't care about any of them. " Behind was sitting in a green current, with a devoted to the will of God and a happy, festive face, Anna Mikhailovna. In their box there was that atmosphere - the groom and the bride, whom Natasha knew and loved so much. She turned away and suddenly everything that was humiliating in her morning visit came to her mind. “What right does he have not to want to accept me into his kinship? Ah, it's better not to think about it, not to think about it before his arrival! " she said to herself and began to look around the familiar and unfamiliar faces in the stalls. In front of the parterre, in the very middle, with his back to the ramp, stood Dolokhov with a huge, combed up shock of curly hair, in a Persian suit. He stood in the very sight of the theater, knowing that he attracted the attention of the entire hall, as freely as if he were standing in his room. The most brilliant youth of Moscow stood around him, and he apparently took the lead among them. Count Ilya Andreevich, laughing, pushed the blushing Sonya, pointing to her former adorer. - Did you find out? - he asked. - And where did he come from, - the count turned to Shinshin, - he disappeared somewhere? - Lost, - answered Shinshin.- I was in the Caucasus, and there I fled, and, they say, some sovereign prince was a minister in Persia, he killed Shakhov's brother there: well, all the Moscow ladies are going crazy! Dolochoff le Persan, [Persianin Dolokhov,] and it's over. We now have no word without Dolokhov: they swear to him, they call him like a sterlet, - said Shinshin. - Dolokhov, yes Kuragin Anatol - all our ladies were driven crazy.
Gold aratinga - a two-tone beauty of a large size
Lemon yellow color allowed this bird to get the name by analogy with the most beautiful and popular precious metal. The plumage can be diluted with light or emerald green feathers. As a rule, these contrasting "inserts" are located on the wings. The bird's beak has a silvery-steel shade, and the "eyeliner" outlining the eyes is snow-white in color. Often, several small greenish specks stand out on the lemon-yellow feathers of the head.
The gold arata is larger than its counterparts. The total body length is 35-38 centimeters, and the tail is about 16 centimeters long. The color is more meager. The plumage of other parrots can include up to 5 colors, while the feathers of these large individuals only 2.
Parrot in an aviary
Nurseries practice breeding birds in an aviary. This requires a certain amount of space and is hardly feasible in an ordinary apartment. But in a private house it is quite!
The solar carating, which is provided with a whole enclosure with fellows, can grow up to 30 cm in height. On average, the area of an aviary designed for a couple is 100 x 50 cm, and its height should, on average, be slightly more than human height.
The space is equipped with a chain-link stretched along the walls, along which parrots can climb, snags, branches. The bottom is usually lined with sawdust. Before the start of the breeding season, a closed nest is installed in the aviary. If conditions seem favorable to potential parents, you will soon find 2-6 testicles in it.
Couples are engaged in incubation together, the male replaces the female at her post. On average, the incubation period lasts about 1 month. Chicks are born naked, over time they are covered with green feathers.
Feedback from the breeders gives us an idea of what an interesting, communicative and intelligent bird the sun parakeet is. Photos of birds convince that she is also very beautiful.
Other types of parrots
The black-headed aratinga is distinguished by a dark color. It got its name from its black cheeks, throat and crown. The peoples inhabiting Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Bolivia also call individuals of this species Nandai. The main color of the birds' plumage is green. The wings and underside of the tail may contain blue-black feathers. Some bird watchers consider this species to be independent and deny its connection with “flying flowers”.
Another representative of the species with a contrasting color is the red-headed aratinga. About 90% of the feathers of the bird are green, and the rest are red. The blood-red color makes the forehead, crown and sides of the bird's head more visible. A few more red feathers become visible as the bird spreads its wings in preparation for takeoff.
The orange-fronted aratinga is a bird whose plumage ranges from pale olive to bright green. The eyes are surrounded by a yellow border, the legs are gray-silver in color. A tiny patch of orange feathers is placed over the bird's beak. It was he who became the reason for such an unusual name for the parrot.
Judging by the name, the white-eyed arata should have a different eye color from other birds of the species. However, this is not quite true. The pupil and iris of this parrot is as dark as everyone else's. But the border outlining them is extremely light. The color is so pale that bird watchers call it white. And the view is, respectively, white-eyed arating. The bird's body can be either light or bright green. Sometimes several specks of a red-orange hue are found on it. There are also such parrots, the plumage of which has an absolutely uniform color.
An interesting coloration, which makes it possible to distinguish it from other species, has a red-faced aratin.Its emerald green hue on its back, belly, wings and tail contrasts sharply with its head. A clear red spot is located above the bird's beak, and blurred reddish dots under the eyes and directly on the neck.
The species includes 4 subspecies:
- Argentine white-eyed aratinaAratinga leucophthalmus propinquus
- Colombian white-eyed arataAratinga leucophthalmus nicefori
Meyer de Schauensee, 1946
- Peruvian white-eyed aratingaAratinga leucophthalmus callogenys
- Aratinga leucophthalmus leucophthalmus
- nominal subspecies. (Statius Muller, 1776)
It is advisable to buy young parrots, not older than 6 months. An adult bird will be much more difficult to tame. You should not immediately start training, the caik must get used to the new place of residence. In order for him to become attached to the owner, the breeder should often be near the cage, talk with the pet. The parrot quickly gets used to it, and easily makes contact with humans.
How to tame a parrot
Features of education
When the process of domestication is completed, you can move on to education. Kaiki can start gnawing on furniture. To prevent this from happening, he needs to be given twigs and toys. The bird is able to understand the word "no", but it should not be pronounced loudly and sharply, but in a calm, but slightly strict tone. The parrot gets along poorly with other animals, but it will quickly make friends with its appearance.
Black-headed kaiki are very energetic and artistic birds. They are able to learn several tricks, for example, jumping, somersaults. The animal has short legs, so it needs to walk a lot and climb perches and ladders. This parrot cannot repeat human speech, but it perfectly imitates various sounds, for example, an alarm, an alarm clock and even a crying of a child.