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Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Irina »24 May 2013, 11:11

Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message alexr2006 »24 May 2013, 15:51

Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Igor88 »25 May 2013, 10:13

Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Igor88 »25 May 2013, 10:13

Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Igor88 »25 May 2013, 10:16

Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Igor88 »25 May 2013, 10:17

Quail Aarlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Avonap »25 May 2013, 11:51

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message alexr2006 »May 29, 2013, 18:14

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Avonap »30 May 2013, 11:28

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Igor88 »30 May 2013, 12:08

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Avonap »30 May 2013, 14:16

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message alexr2006 »31 May 2013, 17:25

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Avonap »04 June 2013, 18:27

Quail Harlequin Coturnix delegorguei

Message Avonap »06 June 2013, 19:10

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Quail and its subspecies

Common quail and quail subspecies

Quail (Coturnix coturnix) belongs to the order of chickens (Galliformes), the pheasant family (Phasianidae).
In Russia live, two subspecies of quail - European (Coturnix coturnix coturix) and mute, or japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

Common flail (Coturnix coturnix coturix)

Body length 16-20 cm, weight 80-145 g. The plumage is buffy, the top of the head, back, upper tail and upper tail coverts are in dark and light brown transverse stripes and spots, behind the eye there is a reddish stripe. The male has dark red cheeks, red goiter, black chin and throat. The female differs from it in a pale buffy chin and throat and the presence of black-brown spots (streaks) on the goiter and sides.

Spread
Common quail is widespread in Europe, Africa and Western Asia, in Russia - in the east to Lake Baikal. Inhabits fields, plains and mountains. Winters in Africa and Southwest Asia, mainly in South Africa and Hindustan. Breeds throughout Europe and Asia to North Africa, Palestine, Iran and Turkestan. Arrives south in early April, north in early May.

Reproduction
As soon as the grass grows up, the quail begins to scream and the males enter into battle among themselves because of the female. Nests are made on the ground. The female lays 8-20 eggs of a fawn color with black-brown spots, incubates for 15-17 days and hatches chicks without the participation of the male.

Lifestyle
When the bread ripens, the quails move to the fields, feed quickly and become very fat. Departure, depending on latitude, from late August to late September. Food is mainly vegetable (seeds, buds, shoots), less often insects.

Dumb or japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

Area
From northern Mongolia, Transbaikalia and the Amur region to the south to the central parts of China, to the west to the basin of the Ubsa-Nur and Nan-Shan lakes, as well as the Japanese, southern Kuril Islands and Sakhalin.
The western and northern boundaries of the area within the Russian Federation are determined by the following points: the northwestern coast of Lake Baikal and the middle course of the river. Barguzia, the upper reaches of the river. Barguzia - Okunevye lakes - the mouth of the river. Amalat upstream of the river. Zeya, lower reaches of the river. Burei, Khabarovsk, Mariinsk. On Sakhalin, it is distributed to the north along the western coast to the city of Krasnogorsk, eastward to the city of Makarov. Recorded as a common species on Moneron Island and the southern Kuril Islands: Shikotan, Iturup and Kunashir, but later on the islands of Moneron, Shikotan, Kunashir, Yuri, Anuchin and Tanfilyev was not found. The northern border, like the common quail, is apparently quite mobile, and as the agricultural development of the Far East tends to move to the north. In any case, this species was not recorded at the end of the nineteenth century, either on Moneron or on southern Sakhalin.

Wintering
The bulk of dumb quails winter in Southeast Asia - south of the Eastern Himalayas and the Yellow River Valley, and in Japan - from the central parts of Honshu Island and further south.A small number of birds regularly winter in southern Transbaikalia (Kyakhta, Ust-Tasurkai) and in the south of Primorye - in the lower reaches of the Suchan and near Slavyanka Bay.

External description, daily activity, social behavior
The smallest of the chicken birds of our fauna, slightly larger than a thrush, with a uniform variegated color, in which a grayish-sandy color predominates. Sexual dimorphism in color is almost not expressed, it leads an exclusively terrestrial lifestyle and never sits on branches of trees and shrubs. It spends almost all the time in dense grass or crops, where it runs deftly and quickly, but when catching insects it can fly up to a height of up to a meter. In general, it takes off in case of emergency. Takeoff is typical for pheasant explosive type, in which the bird rises vertically to a height of 2-3 meters, after which it flies low above the ground and, before landing, glides on spread and curved wings. After frightening, the bird tries to sit in dense thickets as quickly as possible. It predominantly leads a nocturnal lifestyle, showing increased activity in the morning and evening dawns. Both the male and the female are distinguished by extreme silence and only in the mating season do the males of the mute quail emit a mating cry. It is a quiet, slightly humming sound of 3-5 syllables, which sounds like "dzirj-dzirj" and in its timbre somewhat resembles the voice of a grasshopper. The female's voice is not described. Outside the breeding season, birds are completely inaudible. The small size and monochromatic gray color of the quail make it possible to quite confidently determine it in nature.

Coloration
Adult male ... The general color is gray-brown, with numerous brown and black streaks. On the head, white core stripes of feathers form three continuous longitudinal stripes - in the center and on the sides of the crown, which stand out well against a dark background of numerous dark brown streaks. The front of the back is covered with black transverse stripes and spots, and the arrow-shaped white trunk stripes create a longitudinal pattern. On the sides of the back and upper tail, these stripes are larger and, overlapping each other, form two longitudinal white stripes running along the sides of the upper body. The loin and upper tail are dark with a transverse pattern of wide black and narrow reddish and whitish stripes. Wings are gray: wing coverts and flight feathers with a transverse pattern of thin whitish stripes. On the primary flight feathers, this pattern is only on the outer opals, while the inner ones are monochrome gray. The innermost minor and humeral feathers have large black preapical areas. Tail feathers are brownish-gray with thin whitish transverse stripes. On the tail feathers of some individuals, a longitudinal pattern in the form of a light stripe on the trunk is pronounced, and the transverse stripes are reduced or absent altogether. The coloration of the throat and the front of the neck is completely light brown up to the cheeks, inclusive, and against this background, a black-brown stripe often stands out, extending from the chin and expanding and the lower part of the throat into a kind of apron, or there is simply a small brown oval spot. The chest is creamy with small white longitudinal streaks, the lower part of the chest and belly are grayish white. On the sides of the body there is a clear oblique pattern of white trunk stripes with reddish and dark brown edging. The bill is dark gray, the legs are brownish gray, there are no spurs.
Adult female ... Colored almost the same as the male. The main differences come down to the coloration of the throat and the front of the neck, where there is usually no pattern and the color is uniform, grayish-white, as well as the chest, which has a pronounced spotted pattern. "Piglets" - stripes extending to the sides of the throat, in contrast to those of males, are very small. The variegated coloration of the chest is sharply limited from the monochromatic coloration of the neck, but unlike males, there is no black-brown collar. A reddish bloom is also developed on the chest, on which thin rod white stripes slightly stand out in the cut of the mentioned spots.
Juvenile birds in juvenile plumage (males and females). On the upper part of the body, the downy outfit is immediately replaced by feathers, colored like in adult females, but dimmer. The lower part of the body is covered with a regular spotted pattern, thicker, scratching in the female and also covering the sides of the body, being weakly expressed or even absent in the center of the belly. The color of the flight feathers is brownish, darker than in adult birds, with indistinct yellowish stripes along the edges of the outer webs and light edging of the tops.

Downy chick. Above it is dark red, below it is lemon yellow. Through the head there is a light stripe, bordered by black-brown stripes, which merge into one on the back of the head, going down the center of the back to the tail. There are also two dark stripes on the wings. On the sides of the head behind the eye there are 2-3 black spots, sometimes also 2-3 rounded spots under it.

Footprints . They rarely come across the eyes, due to the fact that the quail is kept in places where the traces are poorly printed. Unless it will run across a dusty road, or jump out onto a plot of arable land that is soggy after the rain. By the structure of the print, the quail footprint is similar to the tracks of other chicken birds, it is easy to recognize, and its size cannot be confused with other representatives of this order. The length and width of the print is 3 × 3 cm, the short hind toe is up to 0.8 cm. The step is 6-7 cm. Unlike other chicken droppings, the quail is almost invisible.

Daily activity and social behavior.
During the breeding season, birds are especially active in the morning and evening dawns, as well as in the second half of the night, but at the height of mating they are also active during the day.
Dumb quails are rather secretive birds, and observation of them is associated with certain difficulties. With a grass cover height of 7-10 cm, birds are able to hide in such a way that it is impossible to see them even from a very close distance. The lurking bird sits tightly pressed to the ground. The plumage is pressed to the body, the head is retracted and lowered to the ground. from time to time the quail raises its head, looks around, and then hides again. When danger approaches, the quail gets up for a few seconds, stretches out, looks around (Fig. 5, c), and then starts running back. He runs in small mincing steps, bending his head and stretching forward, 1-2 m, stops, takes a vertical examination posture for a few seconds, and then either continues to run back or hides.
At the beginning of the breeding season, birds stay alone, in places forming clusters of several birds. At the end of summer and until the flight, the birds keep in small flocks (apparently not disintegrated broods), in pairs and singles, constantly forming significant, but diffuse accumulations on feeding places or along the flight route. In general, the schooling life of quails has hardly been studied.

Morphological features.
Birds are densely built with relatively short limbs and tail. The wing is sharper than that of other chickens, often the distal primary flight is the longest. In many individuals, the top of the wing is the 9th primary flight feather, exceeding the outer 10th by 1-2 mm. In general, the wing apex is made up of 3 distal primary flight feathers. There are 14 tail feathers, they are soft and almost hidden by the top coverts. By autumn, on the chin of males and females, feathers grow somewhat elongated and pointed in shape.

Silent quail dimensions in mm.
Males: wing 100.1 (96-107), tail 35.7 (32-41), bill length 7.6 (6.5-8.5), bill width 4.8 (4-5.8), tarsus 23.4 (22-27), middle finger (without claw) 21.8 (20.5 -24). Females: wing 102.2 (98-105), tail 37.6 (32-43), bill length 7.2 (6.2-8.4), bill width 4.7 (2.3-5.3 ), tarsus 24.3 (23-25), middle finger without claw 20.5 (19-21). In general, females are slightly larger than males. Weight 100 g in males and 90 g in females.

Habitat.
Unlike the common quail, the mute quail has a clear preference for damp floodplain meadows, although it definitely avoids tall grasses. To a lesser extent, these birds stay in dry meadows and agricultural fields.
In the spring, until the end of May, in Primorye, they are often found in very damp, almost marshy meadows together with migratory waders. A typical habitat in southern Primorye is a damp cushy meadow among groves of Japanese alder and dry manes with shrubs.
Within the limits of Southern Transbaikalia, the mute quail is distributed only in the forest-steppe belt. Here, this species prefers to settle in dry and damp meadows of river valleys, in the lower parts and at the foot of the steppe slopes of hills, that is, in biotopes where the grass cover is well developed. Avoids pastures in the place of small sod-gramineous steppes of valley trails and floodplain waterlogged meadows. The most preferred habitats for quail are steppe-type floodplain partially bushy meadows with an average degree of moisture.

Annual life cycle.
Chicken quail is the only migratory bird. Appears at nesting sites among the last migratory species; autumn migration occurs gradually and is hardly noticeable.
In the spring, quails appear in the last days of March, but mating cries begin to publish only from the second decade of April. The height of mating falls on the first days of May, but screams can be heard occasionally throughout the summer, and they intensify again in the second half of August and are heard until the first days of September. In autumn, the span is not clearly expressed. By November, the main one flies off to wintering sites. The end of the flight is even more difficult to catch, since some individuals remain to winter.

Food .
Throughout the year, with the exception of only the middle of summer, plant food predominates in the diet. In the spring, these are greens and seeds of various herbs; in the summer, various insects are added to them in significant quantities, which often prevail over plant food. Of the seeds, the most commonly used are various types of buckwheat, hemp, and in the fall and cultivated grains, bristles. It should be noted that in the fall, in the fields of cereal crops, quails feed only on fallen grains and, as a rule, do not peck ears.

Reproduction.
Mating calls of quails in Primorye can be heard from April to early September. In spring, birds are found mostly in pairs, and it is assumed that under natural conditions this species is much more prone to monogamy than the common quail: in any case, males are much less pugnacious and less noisy. Judging by such a long period of mating activity of males, it is quite possible that the female manages to breed 2, or even 3 broods during the summer. This is evidenced primarily by the data collected in the lower reaches of the Bureya. The first downy chicks were sighted here on May 29, i.e. oviposition took place at the very beginning of this month. The last clutches were found on September 10 (7 weakly hatched eggs). If we assume that the time required for one reproductive cycle, starting from the construction of the nest and ending with the acquisition of independence by males, is 75 days, then a female that started breeding, for example, on May 1, can again begin the second reproductive cycle from July 15 and later. Repeated encounters of barely flapping chicks and even puffs up to October 9 confirms that the second reproductive cycle does indeed take place in some females. Of course, chicks from the latest broods are probably doomed to death, but in warm and late autumn, especially considering that some of the birds remain to winter at their nesting sites every year, they have a real opportunity to survive.
In this respect, the report of Pankin (1968), who found 2 nests on August 30, is of great interest. At a distance of 30 m from each other. In one of them, a clutch of 12 eggs was thrown, while the other contained 15 incubated eggs, from which the chicks hatched the next day. Between these nests, another one with an egg shell was found. It is quite possible that here we are dealing with a double clutch, like in Alktoris rufa, when the female carries 2 clutches in a row, the first of which is incubated by the male, and the second by herself.
There are usually 10-15 eggs in a clutch, in the second clutches there may be less of them - 6-7. Eggs are oblong oval in shape, although pear-shaped are also found. The shell is smooth, shiny, the basic tone is yellowish-brownish (its intensity varies greatly). Reddish-brown spots and dots are densely scattered over the entire surface.
An interesting experiment revealing the reproductive abilities of the Japanese quail was carried out by W. Stevens (Stevens, 1961) in the USA. In Ohio, individually tagged quails were released into special enclosures with an area of ​​about 8 hectares. Then, during the year, the formation and disintegration of pairs, the course of breeding, etc. were observed. The breeding season for the birds under observation began on April 26 and ended on August 14. During this time, individual females bred three broods. Females were taken to set up a new nest 20-25 days after hatching of the first clutch chicks. In addition, it was found that individual male quails took part in incubating eggs and driving a brood. Similar observations are made in natural populations of the silent quail.

Outside of Russia, interesting and most diverse subspecies of quails live: painted or chinese quail Is the smallest of the genus Coturnix Bonnaterr. It is about half the size of an ordinary quail, and its voice is quiet. The homeland of these birds is Indochina, East India and the island of Sri Lanka. In Europe, they have been kept and bred as decorative since 1881. They were brought to our country by the Zoo in the early 70s of the 20th century. Painted quails are kept in spacious enclosures with grass and natural soil. Painted quail is the most interesting representative of its kind, from the point of view of pet lovers. It is often used as a laboratory animal. Unlike other quails, they are polygams (chaotic mating), when keeping them it is recommended to keep one male with three to four females, painted quails are monogamous (monogamous). The male helps in the construction of the nest, protects the female from enemies, looks after the chicks.
Here are also the varieties of the genus Coturnix: Indian quail, black-breasted quail, harlequin quail are described by A.I. Rakhmanov in his book "Breeding of domestic and exotic quails".
In Africa, especially in its Southeast part, the African blue quail is widespread. The Asian bush quail lives in India and the Himalayas. A rocky bush quail settled in the Southeast of India. The brown quail inhabits Australia and the islands of New Guinea.
On the Pacific coast of North America, in Columbia and New Zealand, the Californian quail lives. This quail belongs to the genus Lophortyx. California quails have a tuft on their heads. These birds spend the night in the crowns of trees. The Virginia quail from the genus Colinus also lives in the United States. It nests on the ground and is a common hunting item for Americans.

Painted quail


Harlequin quail


Virgin quail


California quail

The economic value of quails
The number of quails arriving to us in the spring changes noticeably from year to year, which is apparently associated with the death of birds from unfavorable weather conditions during spring and autumn migrations and with different hunting intensities along the migration routes. A decrease in the number of quails in any locality can also occur during increased drought, when the bulk of birds move from one part of the nesting area to another with better living conditions. The possibility of mass death from helminthic diseases is not excluded.
Quail meat has high taste and is a high-calorie dietary product. The quail, despite its small size, has attracted the attention of hunters and sportsmen for a long time. The quail lets you relatively close, takes off without zigzags and is not very fast, so it is not as difficult to shoot at it as at some swamp game. The bird flies away not far away, and it is not difficult to trace the place where it lands.
Due to the fact that the quail found by the cop dog runs little and can stand upright, it is an acceptable object both for training a pointing dog and for carrying out field trials in the steppe conditions.
About 600 years ago, a local quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was domesticated in Japan, which is also found on Sakhalin. It was originally bred as a songbird, and later for eggs and delicious meat. Recently, it has been widely bred in Italy (more than 50 million eggs are produced here annually), England, USA, Vietnam. The release of farmed birds into hunting grounds is practiced. Now they are engaged in quail farming in the Russian Federation. Home quail lays up to 300 eggs per year.

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