The common kestrel hawk, scientific name, Falco sparverius is a bird of prey species in the Kestrel group of family Falconidae. It is also known as European Kestrel, Eurasian kestrel or Old World Kestrel. In Britain, where no other ophthalmic species is seen, kestrel hawk is commonly known simply as “The Nestle”.
Kestrel hawk species occurs across a wider range. The kestrel hawk reaches widely in Europe, Asia, and Africa, as well as occasionally on the eastern coast of North America.
Kestrel hawk has colonized a few oceanic islands, but wetland individuals are generally rare; For example in Guam and Saipan Marianas, two species were recorded only twice throughout Micronesia.
Kestrel hawk measures from 32-39 cm (13-1515 inches) from head to tail, with wings of ৫-pan2 cm (2-12 inches). Females are significantly larger, with adult males weighing 136-252 g (4.8-8.9 oz), on average about 155 g (5.5 oz).
The average weight of an adult female kestrel hawk is 154-314 grams (5.4-11.1 oz), about 184 grams (6.5 oz). They are smaller than most other birds of prey but larger than most songbirds.
Like other Falco species, they have long wings as well as a distinctly long tail.
Their feathers are mainly light chestnut brown and have black spots on the top and thin dark lined dishes on the bottom; Remixes are also dirty. Unlike most rapists, they exhibit less black spots and stripes, as well as sexually colored diaphragms with a blue-gray cap and tail men.
The tail with the black bars of the female kestrel hawk is brown and both sides have a black tip with a narrow white rim. All ordinary castrels have a prominent black wreath strip similar to their closest relatives.
Siri, legs and a narrow ring around the eye are bright yellows; Toe, Bill and Iris are dark. Adolescents look like older women, but the lower ones are more spacious; The yellow of their empty parts is pale.
The hatchlings are covered in white bottom feathers before their first original enlargement changes to a buff-gray second down coat.
Behavior and Ecology
In the cold-winter parts of its range, the common kestrel hawk goes south in winter; Otherwise, it is sitting, though, as the adolescents mature, they may wander around in search of a better place to settle.
It is a distant animal in the lowlands and prefers open habitats such as fields, heaths, bushlands, and marshland. As long as there are alternative parceling and nesting sites such as stone or building, there is no need for woodland to be present.
It will succeed in treeless steppes, where there are a large number of herbaceous plants and shrubs that increase the number of prey animals.
Kestrel hawk easily adapts to human habitation, as long as sufficient vegetation is available and also found in wetlands, moorlands, and dry savannas.
Kestrel hawk is found from the sea to the lower mountains, reaching 4,500 m (14,800 ft) ASL in the tropical zone of its range but only about 1,750 m (5,740 ft) in the sub-tropical climate of the Himalayan foothills.
Globally, these species are not considered a threat by the IUCN. Its stocks were influenced by the arbitrary use of organochlorine and other pesticides in the mid-twentieth century, but being an R-strategist capable of multiplying quickly in good conditions, it was less affected than other birds of prey.
The global population has fluctuated considerably over the years but is generally stable; It is estimated to be around 1-2 million pairs or more, of which about 20% is found in Europe.
There has been a recent decline in some parts of Western Europe, such as Ireland. Subspecies Dakotia is rare, having less than 5 adult birds in 1, while the canary species of the ancient western Canaryan subspecies are ten times higher than many birds.
Food and feeding
During hunting, the kestrel hawk characteristically hovers around 10-20 meters (33-66 feet) above the ground, looking for prey by altitude, using the ridge lift. Like most hunting birds, ordinary castrels enable their gaze to see smaller prey from a greater distance. Once watching the prey, the bird makes a short, steep dip towards the target.
It is often seen hunting along roads and motorways. This species will be seen near ultraviolet light, allowing birds to detect urine traces around the rat's turf, illuminating the sun with ultraviolet colors, and a favorite (but less obvious) hunting technique is to park the area slightly above the ground and survey the area. When the birds 'scars become the prey's prey, they will jump over them.
They also throw a patch of hunting ground into the ground embrace, attacking the victim whenever it happens.
European pine vole (Microtus subterraneus), a common common ophthalmic victim from prehistoric times
Kestrel hawk is almost exclusively eaten by mouse-sized mammals. Voles, pigs, and true rats can feed about three-fourths or more of the biomass most people can supply on the continental islands (where mammals are often scarce), and small birds (mainly passerines) can make up the majority of their diet.
Elsewhere, birds have only one important diet every few weeks each summer when other vertebrates of an appropriate size such as inexperienced fled nuts, swifts, frogs and ticks are only eaten on rare occasions.
Castrels, however, are more likely to hunt ticks in the southern latitudes. At northern latitudes, shrubs are often seen to provide tickling in their homes, with noon hours and increasing ambient temperatures.
Ason incidentally, arthropods may be the main prey item. Generally, insect animals such as camel spiders and even insects, but mainly beetles, orthopterans, and winged bites will eat insects of national size.
Kestrel hawk starts breeding in the spring (or beginning of the dry season in the tropics), meaning that in Eurasia there is some time between April or May and the tropics and August to December in southern Africa.
It prefers a cavity Nestor, creek, tree or building hole; In the built-up area, ordinary castrels will often be nesting in buildings and will reuse old nests of corvids.
The Dakotia subspecies of the Eastern Canary Islands, Dakotia, is strange for occasionally nesting in dry streams beneath the tops of palm trees, there are clearly small songbirds that make their home there.
Generally, kestrel hawk can nest in close proximity and
The clutch is usually 3-7 eggs; The total egg may give more but will be removed when giving some. It lasts about 2 days per egg-laying. The eggs are abundantly decorated with gray spots, ranging from wash to full surface buffish white to white to black.
The incubation lasts from 4 weeks to one month, and only the female eggs hatch. Men are responsible for feeding him food and it remains the same even after burning for some time.
Next, both parents share the responsibility of brooding and hunting until the young promise 4-5 weeks later.
Families stay together for a few weeks, during this time the youngsters learn how to fend for themselves and hunt. Young people mature sexually during the next reproductive season.
On the British dataset, on average, there are about 3-5 rats on average, although it has a substantial rate of total brood failure.
In fact, some couples who handle childbirth have less than 3 or 4 raises compared to their siblings, the first couple is thought to be more likely to survive and recruit the nest when the first clitoris is due to a higher body condition.
The population's cycles of prey, especially vols, have a considerable impact on reproductive success. Most common castrels die before they reach age 2; Until the first birthday, the death rate can be as high as 70%. At least females usually breed at one year of age.
It is likely that some males will take one more year to mature as they become related species. The biological life span from senescence to death can be 16 years or more; One was recorded to have lived about 24 years.