Bird Families

American Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Profile

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


American peregrine falcon, scientific name Falco peregrinus, also known as the peregrine, and America, historically known as North American duck lightning, is a great hunting bird (reporter) in the Falconi family. There is a huge, crow-shaped Falcon, with its blue-gray backside, white downpours, and a black head.

Peregrine is famous for its speed, it surpasses 320 km / h (200 miles) during its featured hunting stop (high-speed dive) and makes it the fastest member of the world's fastest bird and animal species.

According to the National Geographic TV Program, the maximum measured speed of the Peregrine Falcon is 389 km / h (242 mph).

Like rape eaters, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, where females are significantly larger than males.

According to a study, it has the fastest visual processing speed in any animal tested so far, and can register up to 129 Hz or cycles per second of individual changes.

In analogy, the film is a series of stills projected onto a screen. These images need to be changed to about 25 frames per second before they are viewed as spontaneous and as separate, individual images.

The film needs to be refreshed at 129 frames per second before flashing peregrine falcons, seeing steel images and seeing fluid motion.

Peregrine breeding ranges include areas of land from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It is found almost everywhere in the world except for the extreme polar regions, very high mountains, and most tropical rain forests.

The only major ice-free landmass from which it is completely absent is New Zealand. This makes it one of the most extensive raptors in the world and one of the most widely available bird species.

In fact, the only ground-based bird species found in the greater geographical area is not always natural, but is a rock pigeon widely practiced by humans, which now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.

Peregrine is a highly successful example of urban wildlife in most areas of its range, using tall building structures such as pigeons and ducks as an abundance of prey.

Both English and Scientific names for this species refer to the migratory habits of many northern populations as “travel falcon”. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies that differ in appearance and extent.

There is disagreement over whether the distinct Barbary falcon is represented by two subspecies of Falco peregrinus or whether it is a separate species, F. pelegrinoides.

The deviations of the two species are relatively recent, in the last ice age, so the genetic differences between them (and differences in their appearance) and the relatively small ones are only genetically about 0.6-0.8% different.

Although its diet consists of almost exclusively medium-sized birds, the peregrine will occasionally hunt small mammals, small reptiles or even insects.

Reaching sexual maturity within a year, it usually builds nests to survive on the skiff edge or, more recently, in tall man-made structures.

Due to the widespread use of certain pesticides, especially DDT, the peregrine falcon has become an endangered species in many cases.

Since the DDT ban since the early 1970s, the population has recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting sites and released the wild.

American peregrine falcon is a respected falconry bird due to its strong prey ability, high trainability, versatility and availability through captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large.

Description

The peregrine falcon has a body length of 34 to 58 cm (13-23 inches) and wingspan to 120 cm (20 inches).

Men and women have the same markings and plumage, but like many birds, the peregrine falcon has a sexual size, where males grow up to 5% more females than males.

Males weigh 330 to one thousand grams (0.73-22.20 pounds) Significantly larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 grams (1.5-33 pounds).

In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 grams (1.5 pounds) and females weigh more than 800 grams (1.8 pounds), where it is not uncommon for females to weigh about 50% more than their male reproductive mates.

The standard linear measure of the peregrine is the wing cord measuring 26.5 to 39 cm (10.4-15.4 in), the tail measuring 13 to 19 cm (5.1-7.5 in), and the tarsus measuring 4.5 to 5.6 cm (1.8-22 in).

In adults, the back and long pointed wings are usually slate gray to blue in color with a dark garment (see “Subsize” below).

The wings are resisted with dark white to rusty under parts with dark clear bands of dark brown or black. Like the back, but the tail is thin, with thin clear bars, long, slender and rounded with a black tip and a white band at the ends.

The top of the head and a “mustache” along with the cheek contrast sharply with the black and neck and pale sides of the white neck.

The legs are yellow in color and the chews and nails are black. The upper pinch is dug near the tip, an adaptation that enables Falcon to kill the victim by dislocating the spinal column in the neck.

The immature bird is bandaged, much more striking than the under part, and has a pale blue tooth and orbital ring.

Ecology and behavior

The Peregrine Falcon lives in most mountain ranges, river valleys, coastlines, and growing cities. In mild-wintering areas, it will usually be permanent residents and some individuals, especially adult males, will be in breeding areas, except that populations that are bred only in the Arctic climate usually migrate at great distances in the northern winter.

Performing the Stroop, the Peregrine Falcon reaches faster speeds than any other creature on the planet, including a rise in altitude and then diving at speeds of more than 320 km / h (200 miles), hitting one of its wings so as not to harm itself.

Air pressure from this type of dip may possibly damage the lungs of a bird, but the tubercles of the upper bone on a Falcon's nose are theoretically designed to direct strong air flow away from the nose, allowing the bird to breathe more easily while diving, reducing air pressure changes.

To protect their eyes, Falcons use their imaginary membranes (third eyelids) to disperse tears and clear debris from the eyes to maintain vision.

A study examining flight physics of the “standard Falcon” found theoretical speed limits of 400 km / h (250 miles) for low-altitude flights and 625 km / h (388 miles) for high-altitude flights. In 2005, Ken Franklin recorded a Falcon Stooping at a top speed of 389 km / h (242 mph).

The life expectancy of peregrine falcons in wild areas is 19 years up to 9 months. Mortality in the first year decreases to 59-70%, in adults, 25-32% per year.

In addition to anthropogenic threats such as collisions with human-made objects, peregrine can be killed by large thunderstorms and owls.

The peregrine falcon is host to multiple parasites and pathogens. It is a vector for Avipoxavirus, Newcastle Disease Virus, Falconid Herpesvirus 1 (and possibly other herpesviridae) and some mycoses and bacterial infections.

Endoparasites include Plasmodium rilicum (malaria is not usually found in peregrine falcon), Sterigidae trematodes, Ceratospiculum amaculata (nematodes) and tapeworms. Familiar peregrine falcon ectoparasites are chewed lice, ceratophilus Gary (a straw), and fly on the Hippoboskidae (Icosta nigra, Ornithocton erythrocephala).

Arctic peregrines chase down predators to nest on the Falcons, and the Roof-legged Hawks (Butte Legopas) can use these hot spots as nesting zones.

Upbringing

The peregrine falcon almost exclusively feeds on medium-sized birds such as pigeons and pigeons, waterfowl, songbirds, and waders. This falcon is nestled in tall buildings or bridges, and most of these urban-dwelling birds sit on various pigeons.

Worldwide, it is estimated that somewhere between 1,500 to 2,000 bird species (up to about a fifth of the world's bird species) are predicted by these plaques.

In North America, hunting has taken 3 grams (0.11 oz) from hummingbirds (Silasphorus and Archilochus ssp) to 3.1 kg (6.8 lb) of sandhill crane (killed by a Stroop in Alaska) by peregrine, although most victims were taken in 20 g ( Weight from 0.71 oz (small passerine) to 1,100 g (2.4 lb) (such as ducks and gulls).

American peregrine falcon North America Ryaptarera the most diverse range of any bird species has more than 300 species, including nearly 100 sorabarda have been victims pane.

Small lightning and owls are regularly predicted, mainly small falcons like American Kestrel, Merlin, and the sharp shiny lightning.

In urban areas, the main ingredient in perezrin's diet is rock or feral pigeons, which in some cities make up 5% or more of the diet for American peregrine falcon.

Other common city birds are also regularly taken, mourning pigeons, common wood pigeons, common alterations, northern flickers, common sterlings, American robin, common blackbirds and corvids (such as magpies or carrion, home, and American crow).

Except for bats taken at night, American peregrine falcon rarely preys on mammals, but on occasion, small species such as rats, whirlpools, straws, rats, rats, and squirrels will be adopted.

Large sub-tribes of coastal populations feed almost exclusively on marine birds.

A winter Falcon of the tribal Tundarius has been spotted while successfully hunting a juvenile Scarlet Ibis in the Brazilian mangrove wetlands of Cubauto.

Insects and reptiles make up a small proportion of the American peregrine falcon diet, which varies greatly depending on what is available to the victim.

The American peregrine falcon often hunts during dawn and dusk, when hunting is most active, but it is especially determined in cities, especially at night when hunting can be prevalent at night.

Nocturnal migrants taken by American peregrine falcon include exotic species such as the yellow-billed cuckoo, the black-necked Grabi, the Virginia Rail, and the common quail.

American peregrine falcon hunting requires empty space, and so often prey on open water bodies, wetlands, valleys, fields, and tundra, looking for prey from a high perch or wind.

Large mammals of migrants, especially species that gather like shorebirds in the open, can be quite attractive for American peregrine falcon hunting.

Once the victim's spots were read, it began its stop, folding the tail and wings backward, with the legs bent. The victim is usually hit and captured in mid-air; The Peregrine Falcon hits its prey with a predatory foot, kills it by surprise or impact, then catches it in mid-air. If its victim is too heavy to carry, a peregrine will drop it on the ground and eat it there.

If they miss the initial strike, the peregrine will chase their prey in a stray plane. Although it was previously rare, several peregrine contour-hunters, such as a natural combination, surprise and attack the victim on the ground, even on foot.

Rare incidents of stone hunting have also occurred. Also, peregrines have been documented naturally on young toddlers, from birds such as Kitswick. American peregrine falcon prey is harvested before eating. A recent study found that the presence of peregrines in undesirable species at the same time reduces its preferred prey.

As of 2018, the fastest recorded Falcon was 242 miles per hour (about 390 km / h). Researchers at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and the University of Oxford have used 3D computer simulation in 2018 to show that high speeds allow peregrines to develop better and achieve accuracy in strikes.

Reproduction

Peregrine falcons mature sexually from one to three years old, but in larger populations, they breed after two to three years of age.

A pair of companions for life and yearly return to the same nesting spot. Courtship flights include a mixture of aerial acrobatics, precision spirals, and steep dives.

The male American peregrine falcon passes the victim and it is caught in the middle air to the female.

To make this possible, the woman flies upside down to receive food from the men's talon.

During the breeding season, the American peregrine falcon is regional; The nesting joints are usually more than 1 km (0.62 miles) away, and often there are a large number of pairs, even at such locations. Distance between homes ensures adequate food supply for pairs and their shelves.

In a breeding area, several nests can be built in one pair; The number used by a pair can vary from one or two to seven in 16 or 16 years.

The American peregrine falcon nests in a scrap, usually at the edge of the cliff. The female chooses a nesting place, where she scrapes a shallow hollow on soil, sand, gravel or dead plants to loosen the eggs. No nest materials are added.

Cliff nests are generally preferred over south-facing sites located above the water bodies, including vegetation. In some regions, such as parts of Australia and the west coast of northern North America, large tree trunks are used for nesting.

Before the death of most European peregrines, large populations of Central and Western Europe used unnecessary nests of other large birds.

It can be used as a nest site in remote, unused areas, such as artisanal, steep, and even rocky lowlands. For the most part, peregrines now regularly house tall buildings or bridges.

These man-made structures used for breeding are similar to the natural rocky structures that Peregrine chooses for his nesting sites.

This pair protects the chosen nest site against other peregrines, and often against crows, Aaron, and gulls, and if tied to the nest, there are also mammals such as foxes, ducks, felids, bears, wolves, and mountain lions.

Both nests and (less frequently) adults are predisposed by large-bodied repertoire birds, such as predators, large owls, or girifolcans.

The most serious predators of American peregrine falcon nests in North America and Europe are the great horned owl and the Eurasian eagle-owl. When trying to reproduce for peregrines, the most serious hurdle is the owls of these two species regularly pick up nests, kittens, and adults overnight.

American peregrine falcon has come close to the nest, attacking the entire neck of the rapists who have been able to fatally kill the Gold Aggall and Tuck's Gull (they both usually avoid being potential hunters) to protect their nest.

In one example, when a snowy owl killed an equipped peregrine, the large owl was killed by a tied peregrine parent.

Locally hatching dates vary, but the northern hemisphere usually lasts from February to March and the southern hemisphere from July to August, although the Australian subspecies Macropus can breed in late November, and the nesting population can occur at any time between June and December.

If the eggs are lost early in the nesting season, the female usually has one more clutch, although this is extremely rare in the Arctic due to the short summertime.

Typically three to four eggs, but sometimes less than one or five eggs are laid on the scrap. The laid eggs are white with white or brown marks.

They are incubated for 29 to 33 days, mainly by the female, while the male also helps in egg-laying during the day but only females consume them at night. Occasionally, the average number of young people found in the nest is 2.5 and the promised average number is about 1.5, due to the natural loss of production and nesting resulting from infertile ovulation.

After baby boils, the rafters (known as “aegis”) are covered with creamy-white underneath and have a remarkable amount of feet.

Both men (known as “tire sells”) and females (simply known as “falcons”) American peregrine falcons leave the nest to collect prey for feeding babies.

The parental hunting area can extend a radius of 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the nest site. The rats swear between 42 and 46 days after hatching and are dependent on their parents for up to two months.

Watch the video: Pair of Peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus mating in a disused chalk quarry, England, UK, April (March 2021).

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send