Bird Families

Common Murre or Guillemot (Uria aalge) Facts

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The Common murre or common guillemot (Uria aalge) is a large auk. It's called North America's Thin Bill Building. It has circulation distribution in the low-Arctic and boreal waters in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. It spends most of the time on the ocean just landing on the rocky mountain shores or on the islands.

Common murre or common guillemot has a quick direct flight but is not very quick. They submerge deeper water into deeper watercraft, usually 30-60 meters (98-197 feet). Depth up to 180 meters (590 feet) was recorded.

The genocide of common killers in high-density colonies. Nesting joints can be in physical contact with their neighbors. They do not build a nest; Their single eggs are enclosed in an empty rock on a cliff face. Eggs hatch after 30 days incubation.

The Common murre or common guillemot is born at the bottom and can control its body temperature after 10 days. About 20 days after the raid, the nest begins to build and travels to the sea, unable to fly, but gliding for a while with its male grandparents. Kids are capable of diving as they hit the water. The female stayed at the nest site for about 14 days after the chicken was gone.

Both males and females are amputated after normal mucous reproduction and become airborne for 1-2 months. In the south, they return to the nest site sometime during the winter. Northerners spend the winter further away from their colonies.

Description

The Common murre or common guillemot is 38-46 cm (15-18 in) in length, 61-73 cm (24-29 in) wide. The male and female field and the weight range are up to 1,044 g (2.302 lb) north of 945 g (2.083 lb) in the south. A range of 775-1,250 grams (1.709-2.756 lbs) was reported.

In the breeding plumage, the designated subspecies have black and white under parts on the head, back, and wings. It has a thin dark pointed bill and a small round dark tail.

After the pre-basal moult, the face turns a dark vibrant white behind the eyes. Subspecies of birds US a. Albionis is a darker brown than black, evidently in the colonies of southern Britain. The legs are gray and the bills are dark gray. Sometimes, adults are seen with yellow / gray legs. On May 27, a satirical adult was photographed with a bright yellow bill.

The first winter bird's plumage is similar to the basic plumage of adults. However, the first pre-alternate moult occurs later in the year. Adult pre-moult moult may begin in December-February, (even beginning in the United States in November). The feathers can hold.

Some individuals in the North Atlantic, known as the “bridesmaid guillemots,” have a white ring around the eye that again extends as a white line.

It is not a distinct subspecies, but a perennial that becomes more common on the north side of the bird's breed possibly displacement of the character with a north-thick-billed twist, which has a white bill-stripe but no shaking morph.

White is highly reversible, especially in later species and provides an easy way to recognize conspiracies in densely packed breeding colonies of an individual bird.

The chests are black feathers on the bottom and white on the bottom. By 12 days old, contour feathers develop well in some cases except the head. On day 15, feathers of the face show a dark strip against the white neck and cheeks.

Flight

The Common murre or common guillemot flies with a fast wing bit, and its flight speed is 5 km / h (50 mph). Birds are often seen flying in a line just above the surface of the sea. However, a high wing loading of 2 g / cm2 means that this species is not very sticky and difficult to take off. Common murders go flightless for 45-60 days during their primary feather melting.

Diving

The Common murre or common guillemot is a pursuit-dive that allows the wings to propagate, with wings for swimming and swimming underwater. The dive usually lasts less than a minute, but the bird is regularly submerged on the floor for a distance of 30 meters (98 feet).

Diving depths of up to 180 meters (590 feet) have been recorded and birds can remain underwater for a few minutes.

Some birds are permanent residents; northern birds migrate south to open water near southern England, southern California, Japan, Korea, and the western Mediterranean. The trend is to rest on the water in winter and this can have consequences for its metabolism.

The resting metabolism of black-footed kitsewas (which share this winter habit) is 40% higher than the water in the air.

The population is large, probably .3 million breeding pairs or 3 million people. It was stable, however, in 2016, a large number of dead birds were reported in the northeast Pacific. The birds seem to be hungry and starving; No etiology was found. In general, potential threats include excess victims (legal in Newfoundland), pollution and oil spills.

Ecology and behavior

Upbringing

The common murre can continue from its breeding ground to grazing; 100 kilometers (62 miles) and greater distances are often observed, however, when birds are only traveling a short distance when sufficient food is available nearby.

The common Murre is the small sculpting forage fish 200 mm (7.9 inches) long or less, such as polar cod, capelin, sand lens, sprouts, sandals, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic herring. Capelins and sand lenses are a favorite food, but anytime the main victim relies heavily on the quantity available.

It also eats some mollusks, marine worms, squid, and amphipods such as cryptaceans. It consumes an average of 20-232 grams (0.71-1.13 oz) of food a day. It is often seen in his bill carrying the fish while the tail is hanging.

Snake pipefish are occasionally eaten but have poor nutritional value. The amount of these fish is increasing in the normal Moore's diet. Snake pipefish have increased in the northeast Atlantic and the North Sea since the 21st, and the number of sandals has decreased.

Communication

Has several calls with soft purring sound in common

Reproduction

Colony

Common Moore nests in densely packed colonies (called “lumeri”) occupy one pair of square meters during the peak season and twenty pairs. Common killers do not make nests and eggs, or ground, do not lay eggs in the empty rock desert beneath the rock.

They first breed at the age of four to nine, but most individuals recruit breeders at six or seven years old, although the birds may spread out if space is limited (may leave their breeding colony permanently).

Annual survival of birds aged 6-15 years is 0.895 and the average life expectancy is about 20 years. Breeding success increases with age of 9-10 to 0.7 goats per age, but decreases in the oldest birds, possibly indicating breeding susceptibility.

Higher density means that birds keep close contact with neighboring breeders. Murre's hatred is at a high concentration and often exhibits a fierce display of razorbill. Alloprene is common both in the partner and in the neighbors Alloprene helps reduce parasites and may have important social functions.

The frequency of Alloprene to the neighbor correlates well with current reproductive success. Allopressing can act as a stress-reliever; Low levels of Alloprene lead to increased levels of conflict and reduce the success of the breed.

Eggs and incubations

Normal peacock eggs are large (about 11% of the female's weight) and are pointed at one end. Here are some hypotheses to explain their piriform size:

If bored, they roll in a circle instead of falling off a cliff.

The shape allows effective heat transfer during incubation.

As a compromise between larger egg size and smaller cross-section. Large-scale knives allow rapid development. The smaller cross-sectional area allows the adult bird to have a smaller cross-section and therefore minimize tension when swimming.

Due to its piriform size, a higher proportion of the ovary interacts with the cliff, reducing the impact of the impact by the surrounding birds.

In dense colonies, there are many stools, however, most of the rectum is at the termination end of the contaminated egg, so the edges of the blunt are more clear where the chickens are grown.

Eggs are laid from May to July for the Atlantic population and March to July in the Pacific. Two weeks before the parade, the woman spends less time on the shore. While lying down, he posed a “Phoenix-like” posture: his body leaned straight on the vertical wire; The wings are half extended. The egg first raises the point, and it usually takes 5-10 minutes to avoid.

Eggs help parents identify them by changing the color and pattern, Each egg pattern is unique. Colors include white, green, blue or brown stains or black or lilac stains.

After laying, the female will look at the egg before starting the first incubation shift. Both parents hatch eggs in a 1-38 hour shift between eggs for 20 to 5 days.

Eggs can be lost due to predation or misconduct. Cocks and gulls are opportunistic egg thieves. Eggs are also hatched during fights. If the first egg is lost, the female may give a second egg. This egg is usually lighter, lighter than the first one.

The second egg lays faster than the first egg. However this rapid growth comes at a cost, the first fleas have a lot of fat reserves and can withstand a temporary food shortage.

Chills are rising

The Murre occupies an intermediate position between the precoxial raft of the genus Cynthlioboraphus and the semi-preexisting rafters of the Atlantic puffin. They are born below the age of 10 and are able to control their own temperature at least one parent is always present except during lack of food and both parents attend 10-30% of the time. Both parents have alternate options for dog brooding or snacking.

The Murre will leave the nest after 16 to 30 days (20-22 days on average) and descend to the sea, fluttering in their swings as they are still unable to move. Goats go up to 457 meters (1,499 feet) above water in height.

Once the baby leaves the nest, the male is present for about two months. The Murre was able to fly about two weeks after the escape. At that time the men feed and care for the sea chick. The chick swims for about 1000 kilometers (620 miles) in migrating south. The chickens are still at the nest site 36 days after the baby's birth (16 days on average).

Watch the video: COMMON MURRES climbing, flying, swimming Uria aalge (February 2021).

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