Arctic Tern, scientific name Sterna paradisaea is a tern in the Laridae family. This bird belongs to the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions cover Europe, Asia, and North America, with the species breeding strongly, showing two summers each year as the Arctic Tern travels from its northern breeding ground to the southern summer Antarctic coast.
And comes back about six months later. Recent studies have shown that the annual circular length for Arctic Tern bird nesting in Iceland and Greenland is about 5 km (5,7 miles) and in the Netherlands about 5 km (5,000,7 miles). These are the longest known migrations in the animal world.
As the Arctic Tern flies, glides through the air. It builds the nest once in every one to three years (depending on its cycle of confluence); Once the nest is finished, it takes to the sky to move further south.
Arctic Terns are medium-sized birds. They are 25-5 cm (4-5 inches) in length and wings 1-5 cm (2-5 in). They are mainly gray and white in color, with a red/orange knife and legs, white forehead, a black nape and crown (long white) and white cheeks.
The gray cover is 305 mm and the scapulas are brown, with some of the white t the upper wings are gray with a white leading edge, and the collar is completely white as if melted. The deeply forked tail is white with gray outer webs.
Arctic Terns are long-lived birds, many reaching the age of fifteen to thirty. They mainly eat fish and small marine electronic signals.
The species is plentiful, with an estimated one million people. The trend of the number of individuals of the species as a whole is not known; in the past, the number of these birds has decreased at the southern end.
Distribution and transfer
The Arctic Tern has a continuously circulating reproductive distribution; There are no recognized subspecies.
During the northern summer, it is found in coastal areas in the cold winters of North America and Eurasia. During the southern summer, it can reach the northern tip of the Antarctic ice and look for the sea.
The Arctic Tern is famous for relocation; It returns to the Antarctic and again every year from its breeding fields in the Arctic, the shortest distance between these regions is 19,000 kilometers (12,000 miles).
The long journey ensures that this bird will see two summers per year and daylight more than any other creature on the planet.
An example of this bird's remarkable long-distance flight capability was an invisible dog bird in the Northumberland, Fern Islands, UK, in the northern summer of 12, reaching Melbourne, Australia on October 12, just three months after the escape (14,000 km) - more than 14,000 km (22,000 km).
A study of 25 using bird tracking devices showed that the above examples are not uncommon for the species. Indeed, it was observed that previous studies seriously underestimated the annual distance traveled by the Arctic Tern.
Eleven birds born in Greenland or Iceland average 707,7 km (1,100 miles) on an average, with a maximum of 6,6 km (7,7 miles). The difference from the previous estimates is due to the birds taking a clear course without following the same path as previously anticipated.
The birds follow a somewhat saturated path to take advantage of the prevailing winds.
The average Arctic tern lives about thirty years and, based on the above research, will travel about 2.5 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) over its lifetime, which is more than 3 times the equivalent of a roundtrip from Earth to the Moon.
A 2013 tracking study of half a dozen Arctic Tern Breeding in the Netherlands shows the average annual migration of c. 90,000 km (56,000 miles).
On the way south, these birds followed roughly the coast of Europe and Africa. Circling the southern tip of Africa, they turned east, some turning almost south to reach Wilkes Land in northeast Antarctica before reaching Australia.
A bird flew several hundred kilometers to the southern coast of Australia before flying south to Antarctica, one flying through Australia and Tasmania along the entire southern coast of Australia.
Arriving in the Melbourne area, it turns south and sails on a ship in Wilkes Land in northeast Antarctica, crossing the southwestern edge of New Zealand's southern island.
Once back in the Netherlands, this bird traveled to C. At 1.3 km (5,000,000 miles), the longest migration for any animal has not yet been recorded.