The collared kingfisher, scientific name Todiramphus chloris is a medium-sized kingfisher belonging to the subfamily Halcyoninae, the tree kingfishers. This article is going to provide you an overview of collared kingfisher sound, food, facts, diet, etc.
It is usually referred to as the white-collared kingfisher or mangrove kingfisher. It has a variety extending from the Pink Sea throughout southern Asia to Polynesia.
Quite a few subspecies and subspecies teams have been cut up from this species together with the Pacific kingfisher, the islet kingfisher, the Torresian kingfisher, the Mariana kingfisher, and the Melanesian kingfisher.
The kingfisher is a colorful small to medium fowl usually discovered close to water. The Collared Kingfisher is a really widespread species and has quite a few subspecies, belonging to the Halcyoninae subfamily, the tree kingfishers.
They happen on three continents, particularly Australia, Asia, and Africa, occupying a variety inside these continents.
The subspecies range barely in dimension however the plumage shade is the primary variation, with upperparts being greener or bluer, the underparts starting from buff to white, and the dimensions of the white loral spot differing.
Women and men are comparable, however, the upperparts of males normally are barely bluer than these females. Juveniles have a duller shade than adults, a black collar band, and really small, black scaling over the breast.
Collared kingfisher Description
The collared kingfisher is 22 to 29 cm (8.7 to 11.four in) lengthy and weighs 51 to 90 g (1.Eight to three.2 oz).
It varies from blue to inexperienced above whereas the underparts may be white or buff. There's a white-collar across the neck, giving the birds its title.
Some races have a white or buff stripe over the attention whereas others have a white spot between the attention and invoice.
There could also be a black stripe by means of attention. The big invoice is black with a pale yellow base to the decrease mandible.
Females are typically greener than males. Immature birds are duller than the adults with darkish scaly markings on the neck and breast.
It has quite a lot of calls which range geographically. The commonest name is loud, harsh, and metallic and is repeated a number of instances.
Distribution and habitat
It's mostly present in coastal areas, notably in mangrove swamps. It additionally inhabits farmland, open woodland, grassland, and gardens.
In some elements of its vary, particularly on islands, it may be seen additional inland, ranging into the forest or into mountain areas. Birds typically perch conspicuously on wires, rocks, or naked branches.
The Collared kingfisher happens from the Arabian Gulf and Pink Sea all through southern and south-eastern Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea, northern Australia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and the Solomon Islands.
It occupies quite a lot of coastal habitats, from sandy seashores and harbors to mangroves, tidal areas, and mudflats.
Within the west a part of the vary, it's largely confined to mangroves, however can also happen in coconut plantations in Southeast Asia.
It typically follows massive rivers to achieve open woodlands, gardens, parks, and roadsides, typically flying upstream so far as 40 km.
Probably the most subspecies that happens the furthest west within the Eurasian/African landmass is T. c. Abyssinian of north-east Africa which is present in patches of mangroves in Eritrea and has additionally been recorded from Sudan and Somalia.
More east in Arabia is the endangered race T. c. kalbaensis with inhabitants of 55 pairs or fewer; these are nearly solely restricted to Khor Kalba within the United Arab Emirates however breeding has additionally occurred lately at Khor Shinass in Oman.
Additional subspecies happen regionally across the coasts of India and Bangladesh and on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
In Southeast Asia and Indonesia, the species is widespread and customary, occurring far inland in some areas.
Habits and Way of life
A ready predator of fish, being a perch-and-wait kind of predator, the Collared kingfisher sits on a department close to water, of 1 to 3 meters in peak, swooping right down to seize its prey on sand or mud.
It sits and waits on its perch for a very long time, and take its prey again to its perch, the place it beats it to loss of life.
This species is solitary and extremely territorial, finding a major space in response to the meals out there, desirability of timber for perching, and security of roosting websites. They seek meals throughout the mornings and evenings.
In a cooler climate, they hunt for meals through the center of the day as nicely.
Cleanliness is essential to them, and they are often seen diving into the water so as to bathe, then flying to a perch the place they preen themselves and let their feathers dry within the daylight. Some even clear their heads with their wings.
They use a department for cleansing their spectacular beaks, wiping them forwards and backward.
Collared kingfishers residing in coastal areas and being opportunistic generalist carnivores feed totally on shrimp, crabs, and small fish.
These additional inland eat land crabs, earthworms, spiders, bugs, frogs, small snakes, and sometimes, mice, fowl eggs, and chicks.
Small crabs are the favored meals in coastal areas however all kinds of different animals are eaten together with bugs, worms, snails, shrimps, frogs, lizards, small fish, and typically different small birds as nicely.
The bird perches nearly immobile for lengthy durations ready for prey. When it spots one thing it glides right down to catch it after which flies again to the perch the place bigger gadgets are pounded towards the department to subdue them. Any indigestible stays are regurgitated as pellets.
Little is understood concerning the mating system of Collared kingfishers, nonetheless, most tree kingfishers exhibit a monogamous mating system.
This means that males will mate with just one feminine and females will mate with just one male. The breeding season lasts from December to August when the birds pursue one another throughout territorial courtship flights.
Then the male affords a fish to the feminine, the pair bond cemented by each bird extending their wings.
Breeding birds nest in solitary pairs, making a nest in a termite nest, a previous tree trunk, a previous woodpecker gap, or an earthen financial institution.
The territory across the nest web site is aggressively defended. Usually, two broods are raised in a yr. 3-7 eggs are laid and incubation is for about 18 days. The chicks fledge at about 26-30 days previously.
The nest is a gap, both a pure tree gap or a burrow excavated by the birds themselves in a rotten tree, termite mound or earth financial institution.
They can even occupy previous woodpecker holes. Two to seven rounded whitish eggs are laid immediately on the ground of the burrow with no nest materials used.
Each dad and mom participate in incubating the eggs and feeding the chicks. The younger birds depart the nest about 44 days after hatching. Two broods are sometimes raised in a yr.
Though widespread, and never at present threatened by extinction, in some elements of its vary this species is threatened by lack of habitat, notably as a result of the conversion of mangroves, reminiscent of in Australia, the place they're destroyed for residential, infrastructure and vacationer developments, which ends up in the Collared kingfisher's nesting and foraging habitat being misplaced.
These birds are additionally threatened by air pollution in estuaries and the build-up of pesticides within the surroundings.
In response to IUCN, Collared kingfisher may be very widespread and customary to consider all through its vary however no general inhabitants estimate is offered. At the moment this species is classed as Least Concern (LC), nonetheless, its numbers in the present day are lowering.